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65 Cards in this Set

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a state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability
deconditioned
the cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement
proprioception
an unstable (but controllable) physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms
proprioceptively enriched environment
a muscles ability to contract for an extended period of time
muscular endurance
the muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power
prime mover
set of two exercises that are performed back to back without any rest time between them
superset
the ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion
neuromuscular efficiency
how quickly a muscle can generate force
rate of force production
Today, approximately what percentage or adults are estimated to be obese?
30% is the answer (book says 33%)
Name the 3 building blocks of training

5 phases also (1-3-1)
stabilization, strength, and power

stabilization endurance, strength endurance, hypertrophy, maximal strength, power
In which building block does the phase of Hypertrophy Training belong?
strength
Which phase of training enhances prime mover strength and improves the rate of force production concurrently?
power (power training)
the communication network within the body
nervous system
the ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment
sensory function
the ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response
integrative function
the neuromuscular response to the sensory information
motor function
the equation for movement
NS + skeletal system + muscular system = kinetic chain
the functional unit of the nervous system
neuron
what are the three main parts that neurons are composed of?
the cell body, axon, and dendrites
transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to the brain or spinal cord
sensory (afferent) neurons
transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another
interneurons
transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites
motor (efferent) neurons
composed of the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body
peripheral nervous system
sensor receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues
mechanoreceptors
receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change
muscle spindles
receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change
golgi tendon organs
receptors that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration in the joint
joint receptors
the body's framework, composed of bones and joints
skeletal system
provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs
bones
the movable junction where two or more bones meet
joints
portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
axial skeleton
portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities
appendicular skeleton
flattended or indented portion of bone, which can be a muscle attachment site
depression
projection protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach
process
joint motion
arthrokinematics
joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body
synovial joints
joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage
nonsynovial joints
primary connective tissues that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement
ligament
the functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
sarcomere
connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force
tendons
the contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
neural activation
a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
motor unit
chemical messengers that cross synapses to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
neurotransmitter
which kind of muscle fibers are "fast twitch"?
TYPE II
a system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory system
cardiorespiratory system
a system of the body composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels
cardiovascular system
a hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction
heart
the space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest, except the lungs
mediastinum
the superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles
atrium
the inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and, in turn, forces blood into the arteries
ventricle
fluid the circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, which carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body
blood
how much body weight (%) does blood constitute?

how much?
8 %

5 Liters, roughly 1.5 gallons
network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body
blood vessels
vessels that carry blood away from the heart
arteries
vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart
veins
small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries
arterioles
the smallest blood vessels, which connect venules with arterioles
capillaries
the very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins
venules
the process of actively contracting inspiratory muscles to move air into the body
inspiration
the process of actively of passively relaxing inspiratory msucles to move air out of the body
expiration
requires oxygen:

does not require oxygen:
aerobic

anaerobic
the study of the energy in the body; looks at how chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy
bioenergetics
a cellular structure that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
what are the three components of the cardiovascular system?
the heart, blood, and blood vessels