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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nature influenced of gender vs. nurture influences of gender
influenced of biology vs. environmental influences
sex
refers to biological traits that distinguish males from females (anatomy, chromosomes, hormones)
gender
social label ascribed to us on birth certificates
gender role
refers to behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that culture deems appropriate for males and females
gender identity
refers to how a person accepts the culture's prescribed gender roles; how an individual adapts the expected gender to role to his/her identity. gender identity is subject to the individual.
gender presentation
refers to how an individual presents his or her gender identity through personality, habits, and behaviors
gender stereotypes
encompass the cultural beliefs about "what" gender roles are and "how" these roles should be enacted. it tends to reflect culture's belief about the ways in which men and women behave
xx chromosome vs. xy chromosome
female and male
cell duplication and cell division
characterize the germinal period of prenatal development
cell differentiation
begins when the zygote has divided into a ball of 8 cells. during this time, cells begin to take on distinct, genetically determined traits and forms.
wolffian and mullerian reproductive duct system
both female and male embryo have this.
males
wolffian system further differentiates and testes continue to develop and produce androgens. mullerian system degenerates
androgens
testosterone, masculinizing sex hormones
females
estrogen not required to produce female. when y chromosome not present, testosterone not produced. wolffian system degenerates, and mullerian system continues.
intersexed
someone who is anatomically somewhere along the continuum between male and female. could be hermaphrodite, femeale pseudohermaphrodite, or male pseudohermaphrodite
hermaphrodite
babies born with both ovarian and testicular tissue, or have a combination of an ovary and a testicle as one structure, termed ovatestes
female pseudohermaphrodite
has an XX chromosomal structure and has normal female internal reproductive organs; however, the external genitalia is masculinized giving a more male than female appearance
male pseudohermaphrodite
have an XY chromosomal structure and do have testes, although the testes are typically located within the pelvis and not outside of the body. gives appearance of a female because there are not testes in the sac
androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
distorder characterized by abnormality of the X chromosome. because base sexual anatomy is female, a baby affected with AIS is born with external genitalia that appear to be female. typically only diagnosed when adolescent reaches puberty and is unable to menstruate
turner's syndrome
occurs when one of the two X chromosomes is completely or partially absent. sometimes called "X0" babies. mullerian system degenerates during prenatal period, so fetus wont develop ovaries rendering her infertile and incapable of producing estrogen.
klinefelter's syndrome
extra X chromosome present (XXY chromosomal pattern) internal reproductive organs and external genitalia develop normally, males will have smaller than normal testes and wont produce sperm.
gender schemas
the ways we internalize and incorporate specific gendered behaviors and expectations
BSRI
bem sex role inventory, scale that focuses on attributes that are thought to be "masculine" and those that are thought to be "feminine"
PAQ
personal attributes questionnaire, used to examine emotional intimacy among friends, differnces in empathic behavior, and differences in helping behavior among men and women
instrumental schemas
associated with masculinity focus on task-oriented behaviors. some include: aggression, ambition, assertiveness, competitiveness, dominance, self-reliance
expressive schemas
associated with femininity and have an interpersonal or relational orientation. (affection, compassion, gentleness, loyalty, understanding, sensitivity, sympathy)
androgyny
something either has no gender value assigned to it, or that a person possesses traits, behaviors , or characteristics that are typically associated with the opposite gender
physiological androgyny
deals with physical or biological traits, such as occurs in the cases of intersexed individuals
behavioral androgyny
involves the blending of masculine and feminine traits; an androgynous person might display traits and behaviors that are typically associated with male and female, not one or the other
androgynous
no gender roles guiding me nand women's behaviors
sexual orientation
refers to the focus of a person's erotic desires or fantasies, or a person's affectionate or romantic feelings toward a particular gender
sexual preference
believe that sexuality is fluid and is more a matter of choice than biology
membership knowledge
refers to people's understanding that their gender belongs to one group or another
gender typicality
revers to the degree to which people feel that their gender-related experiences are typical of their gender
gender contentedness
refers to people's degree of contentedness with their biological gender assignment
gender conformity
refers to the degree of pressure people feel from their environment to conform to gender stereotypes
intergroup bias
refers to the degree to which people believe their sex is superior to another sex
transgender
refers to people who feel that their biologically assigned gender is a false or incomplete description of themselves
FTM
female to male, people born female but see themselves as partly to fully masculine
MTF
male to female, people who were born male but see themselves as partly to fully feminine
intersexuals
born with some combination of male and female physiology, who may accept as natural their mixed gender
transsexual
person whose sexual identity is opposite to the one assigned at birth
SRS
sex reassignment surgery, surgical alteration to body is performed, aka genital surgery
transvestite
dresses and acts in the manner of a person of the gender opposite from their own. (cross-dressers)
david perry and kay bussey
define gender role development as "the process whereby children come to acquire the behaviors, attitudes, interests, emotional reactions, and motives that are culturally defined as appropriate for members of their sex"
learning theory
traits and behaviors are not inborn, we learn them. S-->R strict behaviorists maintained that a given stimulus would produce a given response
Social learning theory
addresses the roles of reward and punishment and includes an individual's realm of cognition--the role of observation--in the process of learning
bandura maintained that individuals learn behaviors via observation in 3 different ways
1. by imitating observed behaviors in their environment
2. by observing the punishments or rewards based on others' behaviors
3. by exposure to another's thinking
imitating observed behaviors in their environment
not significantly different than learning how to walk or how to talk, children learn gendered behaviors by observing and then imitating the behavior of a model, someone who demonstrates a particular behavior
observing the punishments or rewards based on others' behaviors
watching the consequences of others is enough to "teach"--we learn by watching what happens to others.
exposure to another's thinking
exposure to many different models is particularly useful in changing traditional stereotypes. for example, exposing someone to an intersexed child might serve to break down long-held beliefs
cognitive development theory
kohlberg believed that children could not be influenced outside experiences until they developed cognitively. holds that before social and environmental forces can influence a child's concept of gender, the child must first gain a certain awareness or understanding about the gender
3 phases of gender understanding
1. gender identity
2. gender stability
3. gender constancy
phase 1. gender identity
well before kindergarten, children know differences exist between boys and girls. around 3, children become keenly aware that they are biologically male or female.
phase 2. gender stability
sometime between the ages of 4 and six children reach the realization that their gender will always be the same--that they were a boy or a girl as a baby and will be a one when they grow up.
phase 3. gender constancy
between k and 2nd grade, children understand that acting like a girl if you are a boy doesn't make you a girl, vice versa.
equality under the law
sexual harassment is prohibited by the civil rights acts of 1964.
irrelevant sexualization
uses women's bodies in sexual ways in an attempt to attract attention.
infanticization
presents women as childish, coy, silly, passive, or vulnerable. this is in contrast to men who are commonly portrayed as strong, confident, assertive, and serious
domestication
defines women as in relationship to their husbands, boyfriends, or the man whom they are attracted to. even if the female tv character works outside of the home environment, she is typically shown interacting n her home relationships and not in her home environment
distortion of female body image
seen in the increasingly thinner and thinner females portrayed in primetime tv, such as the leads in desperate housewives
victimization
portrays women as victims of violent acts or as victims of female and male brutality