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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the use of microorganisms, plants and animals or parts thereof for the production of useful compounds.
biotechnology
what are the nucleotides in DNA
adenosine
thymine
cytosine
guanosine
what are examples of biotechnology
recombinant DNA Technology
Monoclonal antibody
what has all the machinery for transcription/translation to take place
nucleus
what is the order of central dogma of molecular biology
replication (DNA replication)> transcription (DNA to RNA) > translation(RNA to Protein)
what are the nucleotides in RNA
adenosine
uracil
cytosine
guanosine
what do triplets define
amino acid
what are the pyrimidines
cytosine
thymine
uracil
what are the purines
adenine
guanine
what is the main difference between the deoxyribose in DNA and the ribose in RNA
the 2' carbon on DNA does not have an Oxygen attached
what enables the transfer of amino acids into a growing polypeptide chain
tRNA
what is rRNA
a component of protein producing ribosomes
what is mRNA
the template for the production of proteins
what does helicase do
helps with unwinding DNA
what does DNA polymerase do
replicates the DNA strand
what is primase used for
needed for DNA polymerase to initiate synthesis of a DNA
what are the phases of transcription
initiation (RNA P unwinds DNA)
elongation (RNA P reads DNA template and makes RNA transcript)
when does RNA splicing occur
during transcription
what is the composition of mature mRNA
no introns only exons
what are the DNA segments that define a gene
transcription unit
minimal sequences needed to initiate transcription (the promoter) and to create the proper 3' terminus of the mature RNA

sequence of elements that regulate the rate of transcription initiation
what is the transcription unit
stretch of DNA that encodes the sequence of primary transcript, includes exons and introns
what are the sequence of elements that regulate the rate of transcription initiation
TATA box
enhancers/silencers
what does the TATA box do
this is where DNA unwinds
binding site for transcription factors
what do enhancers/silencers do
influence transcription from a distance regardless of the transcription start site
what is used to bind amino acids to tRNA
aminoacyl synthetases
what are the examples of organ/cell specefic expression
transcription factors
dysregulation
temporal regulation
receptors