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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1st Cervical Vertebra: C-1
a. "Atlas"
b. Has no body but anterior arch
c. Function: Holds up you head
d. Landmark: mastoid tip
e. no spinous process but
posterior tubercle w/bifid
f. Lat masses(articular pillar
g. Superior facets for atlanto
occipital articulations
2nd Cervical Vertebra: C-2
a. "Axis"
b. Has an odontoid process or
Dens (tooth-like projection)
c. Function: Allows head to turn with C-1
7th Cervical Vertebra: C-7
a. "Vertebra prominens"
b. Longest spinous process of
c. Landmark: Top of shoulders
C-Spine Landmarks
a.EAM (External Acoustic Meatus): 1 inch above C1

b. Mastoid tip or base of skull: C-1

c. Thyroid Cartilage: C-4,C5
d. Top of shoulders: C-7
C-Spine Odds and Ends
a. Lordotic curve naturally
b. Have transverse foramina
c. Bifid Spinous Processes C2-C6
d. Articular Pillar
Cervical Spine - AP Axial
1. CR: 15-20 degrees cephalad
to thyroid cartilage
>SId: 40 inches, bucky
>10x12 inch, lengthwise
>patient stand erect
>elevate mandiblesuperimpose
>collimate width of neck and
open to EAM
>marker, shield
2. Should see C-3 to C-7
3. Taken to see intervertebral
disc spaces
Cervical Spine - AP Open Mouth
1. CR: perpendicular to CR
>8x10 lengthwise, bucky
>Cassette center to CR
>CR directly into mouth
>mastoid tip & bottom inci-
sor is perpendicular
>collimate 4 sided 4x4
>marker, shield

2. Taken for C-1 and C-2
3. Important to superimposethe
top teeth onto the back of
the head
Cervical Spine - Obliques
1. 45 degrees rotation of body
and head standing erect
>10x12 lengthwise, bucky
>SID 40 inches
>CR perpendicular 90 degrees
>CR 15 degrees cephalic
>Center spine CR & midline
>extend chin prevent
mandible from superimpose
of vertebra
>CR level of thyroid-
jungular view
>collimte to width of neck
up to EAM
2. Show intervertebral foramina
** Anterior obliques show
closest to film
** Posterior obliques show
furthest from film
3. CR is 15 degrees
*Anterior Obliques:Caudad
*Posterior Oblique:Cephalad
Cervical Spine - Lateral
1. Taken to see zygapophyseal
2. Flexion & Extension aterals
taken for ossible"Whiplash"
3. SID 72 inch
>no grid due to OID
>10x12 inch lengthwise
>Position patient erect LAT
>Shoulder against cassette
>Align midcoronal plane to
CR & midline of IR
>Center CR to IR
>Ask patient to relax, drop
shoulder down & forward as
possible(do this last step
>Extend chin slightly(to
prevent superimpose of
mandible on upper
>CR @ level of thyroid
>Collimate to width of neck
up to EAM
>marker, shield
All cervical vertebrae?
Three foramina each
Short spinous processes w/bifid tips
Spinal Canal
-begins at the base of the skull & extends distally into the sacrum.

-canal contains the spinal cord and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Spinal Cord
-w/c is enclosed and protected by the spinal canal.

-begins with the medulla oblongata of the brain

-passess through the foramen magnum of the skull and continues through the first cervical vertebra all the way down to the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra where it tapers off to a point called the conus medullaris
Vertebral Column
commonly called spine or spinal column

complex succession of many bones called vertebrae
Intervertebral disks
-tough fibrocartilaginous disks separate typical adult vertebrae

-cushion like disks are tightly bound to the vertebraefor spinal stability

-allow for flexibility & movement of the vertebral column
>a rounded inward or depressed surface like a "cave"

>cervical & lumbar region have concave curvatures & described as lordotic
>a rounded outward or elevated surface

>thoracic & sacral region have convex curvature
First Compensatory Curve
Cervical, curvature, concave, lordotic
Second Compensatory Curve
Lumbar curvature concave lordotic
First Primary Curve
Thoracic curvature convex
Second Primary Curve
Sacral curvature convex
-meaning bent backward
-abnormally increased "sway back" curvature involving lumbar spine
-meaning a hump
-abnormal or exaggerated thoracic "humpback" curvature with increased convexity
-abnormal or exaggerated lateral curvature

-S shaped lateral curvature exist

-cause severe deformity of the entire thorax

-occurs in the lower vertebral column

limp or uneven walk
Thoracic Spine
1. 12 thoracic vertebrae
2. each of thoracic is associated with one pair of ribs
3. L1 & L2 do not show facets for rib articulation
4. Costovertebral joints:Head of Rib and vertebral body
5. Costotransverse joints:Tubercle of Rib and transverse process

>T1-full facet & a demifacet on its inferior margin

>T2-T8 have demifacets on their upper and lower margins

>T9 has only one demifacet on its upper mrgin

>T10-T12 have full facets

Rib 1 articulates with T1 only

Rib 2 articultes with T1 & T2 adn so on

Ribs 11 and 12 articulate only with T11 and T12 at the costovertebral joints

6. Kyphotic curve
7. Landmarks:
a.Suprasternal notch:T2-T3
b.Inferior angle scapula:T7
c.Xiphoid tip:T9-T10
Thoracic Spine - AP
1. CR: T7 (CR between jugular
notch & xiphoid tip)
2. See all 12 thoracic
vertebrae (C7-L1 s/b seen)
3. 14x17,7x17 lengthwise,bucky
4. SID 40 inches
5. CR center to cassette
6. Collimate to film 7 inches
7. Marker, Shield
Thoracic Spine - Oblique
1. 70 degrees oblique, 20 degree
from lateral
2. 14x17 inches lenghtwise,bucky
SID 40 inches
3. CR to T7
4. Cassette centere dto CR 2
2 inches above shoulder
5. Collimate
6. Should see all 12 thoracic
vertebral. Zygapophyseal
Thoracic Spine - Lateral
(Breathing technique 2 second)
1. See T3 or T4 thru T-12
2. Breathing technique to blur
out ribs
3. For the intervertebral
4. Intervertebral disk spaces
5. T1-L1 demonstrated
6. >14x17 lengthwise, bucky
>SID 40 inches
>CR perpendicular to T7
>CR feeling inferior of
scapula T7 posterior or CR
>2 inches back of midaxilary
>Cassettes center to CR
>Collimate length of film
until you see light in the
back. Then take lead blockr
place on side to stop scttr
>Marker, Shield
Thoracic Spine - Swimmers LAT
Cervico thoracic region
Anode Heel Effect
-anode toward the head and cathode toward the feet
Lumbar Spine
1. strongest vertebral column because the load of body weight increases toward the inferior end of the column.

2. has 5 vertebrae
3. lordotic curve
4. Distinctive part: Pars interarticularis (the portion of each lamina between the superior and inferior articular processes
Landmarks - Lumbar Spine
a. lower costal margin: L3
b. iliac crest: L4
c. A.S.I.S:Secon sacral segment
d. Symphysis pubis or greter trochanter: Coccyx
Lumbar Spine - AP
1. Flex knees to open up intervertebral joint spaces
2. Deomonstrate all 5 vertebrae
3. CR *14x17: ilia crest
*10x12 or 11x14:
iliac crest
Lumbar Spine - Obliques
1. 45 degrees obliques,supine
a.11x14, lengthwise,bucky
b.CR 2 inches above iliac
crest, 2 inches of medial
c. CR center of cassette
d. Collimate lenght of by 7
inches by length of film

2. for zygapophyseal joints
3. a.posterior obliques show
side closest to film
b.anterior obliques show
side furthest from film
Lumbar Spine - Lateral
1. Patient lateral recumbent
2. Insure torso & pelvis are in
true lateral
3. 40 SID, bucky
4. 14x17 CR at iliac crest
or 11x14 CR 2" above iliac
4. collimate by 7" wider & 2"
posterior to mid coronal or
midaxillary line
5. to see intervertebral for-
Lumbar Spine - L5 & S1 Left Lateral
1. 8x10 lengthwise, bucky
40" SID
2. Patient lat recumbent feet
together, keep body
3. Angle tube 5-10 degree
4. CR midway between ASIS and
iliac crest
1. sacrum is inferior to the
lumbar vertebrae

2. 5 fused segments in the

3. alae or wings (lg masses of
bone latteral to the first
sacral segment

3. most anterior ride of bone:
sacral promontory

4. lower sacrum: cornua
Sacrum - AP
1. 10x12 crosswise
2. SID 40"
3. patient supine support
under knee
3. align midsagittal place to
CR & midline to table
4. endusre no rotation
5. angle tube 15 degrees
6. CR between symphyis pubis
7. Collimate to ASIS by 7"
Sacrum - Lateral
1. 10x12 lengthwise, grid
2. 40" SID
3. patient lateral recumbent
3. center patient on table
4. CR perpindicular level of
ASIS 3" postior
5. Collimate 5" by length of

5. CR
1. coccyx most distal portion
of the vertebral column
(aka tailbone)
2. avearge, 4 fused segments
in adult
3. lower end: Apex - distal
pointed tip of the coccyx
Coccyx - AP
1. 10x12 lengthwise, bucky
2. Angle tube 10 degrees
3. CR between ASIS & syphyis
Coccyx - Lateral
1. 10x12 lengthwise, bucky, 40"
2. pt lateral, flex knees
3. CR at lefel of greater
trochanter 2 inches back
4. Collimate 4x4
Sacral Horns (cornua)
are small tubercles representing the interior articulr processes projecting inferirorly from each side of the fifth sacral segment

they project inferiorly and posteriorly to rticulate tiwht the corresponding hornes of the coccyx.
Parts of Typical Vertebra
a. Body
b. Pedicle
c. Transverse process
d. Lamina
e. Spinous Process
f. Vertebral notches form intervertebral foramina
g. Superior & Inferior articular Process: form zygapohysea joints
h. vertebral foramen: forms spinl cancal
I. Itervertebral disc:
1. nucleus pulposis
2. annulus fibrosis
1. is the thick weight-bearing
part of the vertebra.

2. its superior and inferior
surfaces are flat and rough
for attachment of the
intervertebral disks
Vertebral Arch
ring or arch of bone extending
posteriorly from the vertebral body
Vertebral Foramen
posterior surface of the body and the arch form a circular
opening & contains the spinal
extend posteriorly from either side o fthe vertebral body.

the pedicles form most of the sides of the vertebral arch
1.posterior part of the
vertebral arch is formed by
two somewhat flat layers of

2. each lamina extends
posteriorly form each
pedicle to unit in the
Transverse Process
extending laterraly from approximately the junction of each pedicle and lamina is a projection
Spinous Process
1. extends posteriorly at the
midline junction of the two

2. are the most posterior extensions of the vertebrae and can often be palpated along the posterior surface of the neck and back
Superior Articular Processes & Inferior Articular Processes
these processes provide for certain important joints that are unique and need to be visualized radiographically for each section of the vertebral column

parts are seen on this lateral view are the right and left superimposed and lower pair of right & left
Typyical Vertebra
has 2 pedicles and two laminae
that form the vertebral arch and the vertebral foramen containing the spinal cord

has 2 transverse processes extending laterally, one spinous process extending posteriorly and the large anterior body .

Each typical vertebra so has four articular processed , two superior and two inferior w/c formulate the important jooints of the vertebral column
Interverterbral Joints
are slightly movable joints between the vertebral bodies
Intervertebral Disk
located in these joints are tightly bound to the adjacent vertebral bodies for spinal stability but also allow for flexiblity and movement of the vertebral column
Zygapophyseal Joints
(aka apophyseal joints)
Superior and inferior articular processess (4 processess)
sometimesused interchangeably with the term zygapophyseal joints
Coastal Joints
these articulations of the ribs to the thoracic vertebra
Joints in the Vertebral Column
1. Intervertebral Joints

2. Zygapophyseal Joints

3. Costal Joints
Vertebral notches
form intervertebral foramina
Superior Vertebral notch
upper surface of each pedicle is a half moon-shaped area
Inferior Vertebral notch
lower surface of each ;edicle is another half-moon shaped area
Intervertebral Foramen
2 half moon shape areas from a single opening.

between every two vertebrae are two intervertebral foramina one on each side, through w/c important spinal nerves and blood vessels pass
Intervertebral Disk
the typical adult vertebrae are separated by tough fibrocartilaginous disks between the bodies of every two vertebrae excep between the first and second cervical vertebra.

provides a resilient cushion between the vertebrae helping to absorb shock during movement of the spine
Annulus Fibrosis
(Intervertebral Disk)
each disk consist of an outer fibrous portion
Nucleous Pulposis
(Intervertebral Disk)
a soft semigelatinous inner part
when this soft inner part protrudes through the outer fibrous layer, it presses on the spinal cord and causes severe pain nd numbness that radiate into the lower limbs
abnormal or exaggerated lateral curvature

curvature occurs in the upper thoracic region

associated w/dominant extremity so this curvature may be convex to the right in a right handed person and convex to the left in a left handed person

Best view AP

S-shaped lateral curvature exist

create a limp or uneven walk
abnormal or exaggerated thoracic "humpback" curvature with increased convexity

Lateral thoracic spine view

may be cuased by compression fractures of the anterior edges of the vertebral bodies
Spina Bifida
-failure of lamina to unite
-is a congenital condition in w/c the posterior aspects of the vertebrae fail to develop exposing part of the spinal cord. this condition vaires greatly in severity and occurs most often at L5
vertebra slips forward
defect in the pars interarticularis ("Scotty dog" appearing to wear a collar)
meaning bent backward

abnormally increased "swayback" curvature involving the lumbar spine
Herniated Nucleus Pulposis (HNP)
-condition is sometimes called "slipped disk"

-if the soft inner part (nucleus pulposus) of an intervertebral disk protrudes through the fibrouse cartilage outer layer (annulus) into the psinal canal it may press on the spinal cord or spinal nerves and cause severe pain and possible numbness radiating into the extremities