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698 Cards in this Set

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What is the ideal temperature for long term wine storage?
50-55 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Sweet White Wines?
43-47 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Dry Sherry and Dry Madeira?
43-47 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Champagne and Sparkling Wines
43-50 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Light White Wines and Rose?
45-50 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Heavy Whites and Light Reds?
50-55 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Tawny Port and Sweet Sherries?
54-61 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Medium Bodied Reds?
55 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Full Bodied and Aged Reds?
59-64 degrees F
What is the ideal serving temperature for Sweet Madiera and Vintage Port?
64-68 degrees F
What are ullages?
Beverages that are not able to be sold
How are Vin de liqueurs made?
By adding grape spirit to unfermented grape must
What are Mistelles?
Vin de liqueurs
Name 3 American rootstocks
Vitis rupestris
Vitis Riparia
Vitis berlandieri
Vines grow best at which latitude?
Between 30-50
Spatlese wines are made from these grapes
late-gathered grapes which have been left on the vine to ripen
Auslese wines are made from these grapes
Selected bunches of grapes which have been left on the vine to become over-ripe
BA wines are made from these grapes
specially selected grapes chosen from the ripest bunches which have been effected by Edelfaule
TBA wines are made from these grapes
dried up, selected grapes affected by Edelfaule which have been left to shrivel on the vine
The temperature at which grapes used to make Eiswein are picked.
18 F
Mise en bouteille au chateau
The wine was bottled at the chateau named on the bottle
Mise en bouteille au domaine
The wine was bottled on the estate or domaine
Mise en bouteille dans nos caves
The wine was bottled in the cellars, usually those of the negocient who will be named
Mise en bouteille par XYZ
Wine was bottled by the company or person XYZ
Minimum alcohol content for AC Alsace
8.5% abv
The minimum alcohol content of Alsace Grand Cru
11% abv
Name the permitted varietals used for Alsace AC
Riesling, Gewurz, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Muscat, Sylvaner, Pinot Noir, and Chasselas
What is Klevener de Heiligenstein and where is it from?
The Alsace wine made from the savagnin rose grape
What is limousin?
The type of oak in which Bordeaux barriques are made out of
What is the abv for Sauternes and Barsac?
13% ABV
Name the satellite appellations of St-Emilion
Lussac
Montagne
Puisseguin
St-Georges
The type of wine of Lalande de Pomerol AC
good quality red wines
The type of wine of Cerons AC
sweet wines
The type of wine of Loupiac
similar but lesser sweet wines than Sauternes that must contain some botrytized grapes
The type of wine of Ste-Croix-du-Mont
similar but lesser sweet wines than Sauternes that must contain some botrytized grapes
The styles of Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux AC wines
RW in the North
med-dry to dry in the Centre
sweet WW in the South
The style of Entre-Deux-Mers AC wines
ordinary quality RWs and WWs
The style of Ste-Foy-Bordeaux AC wines
Sweet and dry WWs
The style of Fronsac and Canon Fronsac AC wines
fruity red wines in the style of Pomerol of a slightly lower quality
The style of Bourg AC wines
average to good quality RWs
The style of Blaye AC wines
average dry WWs
The abv of AC Grand Cru Chablis
11%
Name the Grand Crus of Chablis
Les Blanchots
Bougros
Les Clos
Les Grenouilles
Les Preuses
Valmur
Les Vaudesirs
The Cru, commune, and style of Le Musigny
Grand Cru
Chambolle-Musigny
The Cru, commune, and style of Bonnes Mares
Grand Cru
Chambolle-Musigny
The Cru, commune, and style of La Romanee
Grand Cru
Vosne-Romanee
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Romanee-St.Vivant
Grand Cru
Vosne-Romanee
red
The Cru, commune, and style of La Tache
Grand Cru
Vosne-Romanee
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Richebourg
Grand Cru
Vosne-Romanee
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Romanee-Conti
Grand Cru
Vosne-Romanee
red
The Cru, commune, and style of La Grand Rue
Grand Cru
Vosne-Romanee
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Chambertin Clos-de-Beze
Grand Cru
Gevrey-Chambertin
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Chambertin
Grand Cru
Gevrey-Chambertin
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Chapelle-Chambertin
Grand Cru
Commune Gevrey-Chambertin
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Charmes-Chambertin
Grand Cru
Commune Gevrey-Chambertin
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Latricieres-Chambertin
Grand Cru
Commune Gevrey-Chambertin
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Mazis-Chambertin
Grand Cru
Commune Gevrey-Chambertin
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Ruchottes-Chambertin
Grand Cru
Commune Gevrey-Chambertin
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Clos de la Roche
Grand Cru
Commune Morey-St-Denis
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Clos de Tart
Grand Cru
Commune Morey-St-Denis
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Clos St-Denis
Grand Cru
Commune Morey-St-Denis
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Clos des Lambrays
Grand Cru
Commune Morey-St-Denis
red
The Cru, commune, and style of Echezeau
Grand Cru
Commune Flagey-Echezeau
red
The minimum abv of a wine labeled Steinfeder.
10.7% abv
The minimum abv of a wine labeled Federspiel.
11.5% abv
The minimum abv of a wine labeled Smaragd.
12% abv
Name the 4 major wine regions of Austria
1. Lower Austria (Niederosterreich)
2. Burgenland
3. Styria (Steiermark)
4. Vienna (Wien)
Which country/style would wine be labeled "Ausbruch"?
Austria and slightly more opulent than BA
What kind of wine is Burgenland primarily known for?
sweet dessert wines, namely Ausbruch
The foremost red varietal in Burgenland.
Blaufrankish
Name the 3 sub districts of Steiermark
Sudosteiermark
Susteiermark
Weststeiermark
Sudosteiermark and Susteiermark are known to produce what kind of wines?
Hiqh quality white wines from Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
Mittelburgenland and Sudburgenlad have a reputation for making what kind of wine?
Spicy reds made from the Blaufrankisch grape
What is Nihonshu-do and what is it's significance?
The sake value meter and the lower the number, the sweeter the sake.
What is Seimai-buai and what is it's significance?
it's the percentage of weight remaining after polishing. The lower the number, the better the sake's potential
Definition of Junmai-shu
Pure rice sake made from seimaibuai (rice polished to down to 70% of original size)
Definition of Honjozo-shu
made from seimaibuai (rice polished down to 70% of original size) and has a small amount of Brewer's alcohol added
Definition and style of Ginjo-shu
Sake made with rice that has been ground down to 60% of its original volume. Fermented longer at a lower temperature and can be made from Junmai Ginjo or Honjozo Ginzo.
-complex
Definition of Daiginjo-shu
Sake made from between 35 and 50 percent of the rice grain so it is highest quality
What is Nama-zake?
A term for any unpasteurized Sake
What is Genshu?
Undiluted sake thus alc. content of 18-20%
What is Nigori?
Cloudy sake
Describe Calvados
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented apple juice
Describe Framboise
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented raspberries
Describe Kirsch
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented cherries
Describe Mirabelle
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented mirabelles which are small yellow plums
Describe Poire William
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented pears
Describe Slivovitz
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented plums
Describe Quetsch
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented red plums
Describe Marc brandy
Brandy made by distilling the fermented liquor obtained from steeping the pips and skins left after the grapes have been pressed for the production of wine
Describe Grappa
Brandy that under EU law can only be made in Italy and made by distilling the fermented liquor obtained from steeping the pips and skins left after the grapes have been pressed for the production of wine
What do the terms Invecchiata and Stravecchia refer to?
Both refer to oak aging of Grappa
From what are Angostura bitters made?
Rum, gentian, and vegetable spices
Describe the flavor of Amer Picon
Orange flavored French bitters
Describe the flavor of Campari
Italian bitters flavored with herbs and spices
Describe the flavor of Fernet Branca
Strongly flavored bitters from Italy and France
Describe the flavor of Underberg
Spirit flavored with natural herb bitters
What is Schnapps?
Dutch, Danish, or German spirit made from the distillation of grain
Describe Aquavit
Danish schnapps flavored with caraway
Name 4 aniseed-based spirits.
1. Pernot
2. Ricard
3. Ouzo
4. Pastis
Name 3 methods in which the flavorings used to sweeten Liqueurs are extracted.
Distillation
Infusion
Percolation
What is Advocaat made from?
Made from egg yolks and brandy
What is Cordial Medoc made from?
Made from a blend of Creme de Cacao, Brandy, and Curacao
What is Frangelico's flavor?
flavoured with hazelnuts, berries, and flowers
What is Galliano?
herb-flavoured yellow liqueur
What is Grand Marnier?
Orange flavored liqueur that is Cognac based
What is Licor 43?
Liqueur flavored with both vanilla and citrus fruits
What is Strega?
Liqueur flavored with herbs and bark
What is Drambuie, Glayva, and Glen Mist made from?
Made from a base of Scotch whiskey and sweetened and flavoured with heather honey and herbs
What is Irish Mist made from?
Made from a base of Irish whiskey and sweetened and flavoured with heather honey and herbs
What is Southern Comfort made from?
Made from a base of Bourbon whiskey, peaches, and oranges
Define Ouillage
French word meaning both ullage and topping up.
What is Maury?
Appellation in Roussillon making fortified wine from min 75% Grenache
Define Pigeage
French term for punching down the cap of grape skins and other solids.
Name the subzones of Rioja
Alta, Alavesa, Baja
What is the main grape in Gigondas, and what is the max % allowed
Grenache 80%
Name three grapes used in the production of Valpollicella
Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara
What is the largest sub-district within Austria?
Weinviertel
Which regions of Germany can legally produce Liebfraumilch?
Rheingau, Rheinhesse, Pfalz and Nahe
Which region of South Australia is known for its Riesling?
Eden Valley
Name the three sub-regions of Armagnac
Bas-Armagnac, Haut-Armagnac, Tenareze
What is the main grape used in Taurasi?
Aglianico
What is the difference between Austrian BA & TBA?
Must weight of 25°KMW for BA and 30°KMW for TBA. TBA from fully botrytized grapes.
What is the minimum % for varietal wines in Chile?
85%
According to the Spanish Wine Law of 2003, the term añejo refers to a wine that has been aged for how long?
24 months in cask or bottle
What is Weissherbst?
A rosé wine from Baden
Name the two dry styles of varietal Madeira:
Sercial and Verdelho
Eden and Clare Valleys are known for what grape?
Riesling
What is the most widely planted red varietal in Italy?
Sangiovese
Australian appellations are called…
Geographical Indicators (G.I.)
What is the most important growing region of Argentina?
Mendoza
American wine appellations are referred to as…
American Viticultural Areas (AVAs)
What is V.D.N.?
Vin Doux Natural, a sweet wine, Fortified, muted fermentation
In which Australian State is the Margaret River GI located?
Western Australia
In which Australian State is the Limestone Coast GI located?
South Australia
Which Tuscan DOC is famous for its Bordeaux-style blends?
Bolgheri
Define Veraison
Word used by English speakers for that intermediate stage of grape berry development which marks the beginning of ripening, when the grapes change from the hard, green state to their softened and colored form.
Who fixes the price of Champagne grapes every year?
The CIVC or Comite Interprofessional du vin de Champagne
How long must a non-vintage champgne be aged (min) before release?
18 months
Australia's Yarra Valley is known for what grape?
Pinot Noir
Where would you find pinotage and what is it?
South africa
Which region of New Zealand is gaining a strong reputation for Pinot Noir?
Central Otago
Define Soutirage
French term for racking, or moving clear wine off its sediment and into a clean container. It can also be used for the wine serving process of decanting.
Describe the characteristics of Bourgueil.
A red wine made of Cabernet Franc with up to 10% Cabernet Sauvignon. Fragrant, Medium to light body, Light tannin
What is the widely planted grape in Champagne?
Pinot Meunier
What group of states is the world’s 3rd largest wine producer?
Commonwealth of Independent States
What is the Italian equivalent of the French Vins de Table?
Vino di Tavola
Define Débourbage
French term for settling out solids from must or wine.
What is Vino Santo?
A sweet passito, oxidized wine from Trentino or Tuscany.
What does the term Grosse Gewächse mean?
Great Growth” term for the top VDP dry wines from regions other than the Rheingau
What style of wines are produced in Reuilly?
Whites - Sauvignon Blanc
Red and Rose - Pinot Noir
Which Tuscan DOCG produces sweet red wine from dried grapes?
Elba Aleatico Passito or Aleatico Passito dell’Elba DOCG
What are the three DOCGs of Campania?
Taurasi, Greco di Tufo and Fiano di Avellino.
Name the four satellites of St. Emilion.
Montagne-St. Emilion, Lussac-St. Emilion, Puisseguin-St. Emilion, St George-St.Emilion.
What is Mavrodaphne?
A red grape grown in Greece and Eastern Europe
What are the COs of New Zealand’s South Island?
Canterbury, Central Otago, Marlborough and Nelson
Name two white wine-producing appellations of the Northern Rhone Valley.
Chateau Grillet, Condrieu, Croze Hermitage, Hermitage, St Peray, St Joseph.
Name one of the two DOCGs of Marches.
Vernaccia di Serrapatronna and Conero
Latricieres-Chambertin is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Grand Cru, Gevrey-Chambertin
Charmes-Chambertin is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Grand Cru, Gevrey-Chambertin
What is the only AOC that allows Chardonnay in Alsace?
Cremant d'Alsace
What is the principal grape of Rose’ de Riceys?
Pinot Noir
What was the first DOCa?
Rioja
Les Argilliers is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Premier Cru, Nuits-St. Georges
Latricieres-Chambertin is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Grand Cru, Gevrey-Chambertin
The Côte-des-Blancs is a wine producing district found in?
Champagne
More than 2/3 of Argentina wine production is located in which viticultural region?
Mendoza
Mazis-Chambertin is a Grand cru of which village?
Gevrey-Chambertin
What is the Tête de Cuvée or Prestige Cuvée of Perrier-Jouet?
La Belle Epoque
What are the primary white grapes of Bandol?
Bourbolenc, Ugni and Clairette
Château Latour is within what AOC? What commune? What Growth?
Pauillac AOC, Pauillac, 1st Growth
Chevalier-Montrachet is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Grand Cru, Puligny-Montrachet
What is the red grape of Piedmont sparkling wine?
Brachetto
Les Hauts Doix is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Premier Cru, Chambolle-Musigny
Name 4 VDN of the Languedoc-Roussillon.
Maury, Banyuls, Banyuls Grand Cru, Grand Roussillon, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de St. Jean de Minervois, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Miravel
What is Marsala?
A fortified wine from Sicily
Rutherglen Liquer Muscat and Liquer Tokay are made from what grapes?
Muscat de Frontignan and Muscadelle
What is Chenel and where is it grown?
Cross of Chenin and Trebbiano grown in South Africa.
What are the Grand Cru villages of Vallee de la Marne?
AŸ and Tours
What are 3 monopoles in the Cotes de Nuits?
La Tache, Romanee-Conti, Clos de Tart (Monmessin), La Grande Rue (Domaine Lamarche), Les Poirets (Henri Gouges)
What is the minimum abv for Cote-Rotie, St. Joseph and Crozes-Hermitage?
10%
Name two regional GIs of Victoria.
Gippsland, Geelong, Goulburn Valley, Mornington, Great Western , Milwa, Mildura
Mazoyeres-Chambertin is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Grand Cru, Gevrey-Chambertin
Les Petits Epenots is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Premier Cru, Pommard
Name 5 great Champagne vintages
1982, 1985, 1988, 1995, 1996
Name 10 great Bordeaux vintages
1982, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2005
Name the 7 Grand Crus of Chablis
Bougros
Blanchots
Les Clos
Grenouilles
Les Preuses
Valmur
Vaudésir
Name the 10 Grand Crus of Beaujolais
Brouilly
Chénas
Chiroubles
Côte de Brouilly
Fleurie
Juliénas
Morgon
Moulin-a-Vent
Régnie
St. Amour
Which varietal has Margaret River built it's reputation on?
Cabernet
What are the ingredients in an Americano?
1 measure Campari
1 measure sweet vermouth
Soda water
What are the ingredients in a Black Velvet?
Equal quantities of Champagne and Guinness are built into a beer or high ball glass
What are the ingredients in a Bloody Mary?
1 measure vodka
1 baby size bottle of tomato juice
2-3 dashes of Worcestershire sauce
1 dash lemon
What are the ingredients in a Bellini?
2/3 Champagne
1/3 Peach juice
What are the ingredients in a Buck's Fizz?
2/3 Champagne
1/3 fresh Orange Juice
What are the ingredients in a Mimosa?
2/3 Champagne
1/3 fresh Orange Juice
dash of Orange Curacao
What are the ingredients in a Kir Royale?
2 dashes of Creme de Cassis topped with Champagne
What are the ingredients in a Champagne Cocktail?
1 glass of dry Champagne
1 teaspoon of Cognac
1 cube of sugar
Angostura bitters
What are the ingredients in a Brandy Alexander?
1/3 Brandy
1/3 Brown Creme de Cacao
1/3 Cream
Nutmeg on top
What are the ingredients in a Cosmopolitan?
1 measure of vodka
1 measure of cranberry juice
1/2 measure of Cointreau/Triple Sec
Juice of 1/2 of a fresh lime
What are the ingredients in a Cuba Libre?
1 measure of white rum
juice of half of a fresh lime
cola
What are the ingredients in a Daiquiri?
3/4 white rum
3 dashes of Gomme syrup
1/4 fresh lime juice
What are the ingredients in Frappes?
Pour 1 measure of liqueur into cocktail glass filled with crushed ice.
What are the ingredients in a Grasshopper?
1/3 Creme de Menthe
1/3 Creme de Cacao
1/3 Cream
What are the ingredients in a Harvey Wallbanger?
2 oz of vodka
1 baby-size bottle of orange juice
1/2 measure of Galliano
What are the ingredients in a Highball?
a spirit
an effervescent mixer
What are the ingredients in a Horse's Neck?
1 measure Brandy
Ginger Ale
Peel of one lemon
What are the ingredients in a Rye Highball?
1 measure Rye whiskey
Ginger ale or Soda water
What are the ingredients in a Tom Collins?
1 measure of London dry gin
1 teaspoon of Gomme syrup
Juice of medium lemon
Soda water
What are the ingredients in a Kir?
1/2 oz of Creme de Cassis topped with dry white wine in a wine glass
What are the ingredients in a Long Island Iced Tea?
1 part vodka
1 part tequila
1 part white rum
1 part gin
1 part Cointreau
1 part lemon juice
Splash of coke
What are the ingredients in a Mai Tai?
1 measure white rum
1 measure golden rum
1/2 measure of curacao
1/4 measure of orgeat
Juice of a lime
What are the ingredients in a sweet Manhattan?
1 1/2 measures of rye whiskey
1/4 measure of sweet vermouth
1 dash of Angostura bitters
What are the ingredients in a Rob Roy?
1 1/2 measures of Scotch whisky
1/4 measure of sweet vermouth
1 dash of Angostura bitters
What are the ingredients in a perfect (medium) Manhattan?
1 1/2 measures of rye whiskey
1/2 measure of sweet vermouth
1/2 measure of dry vermouth
What are the ingredients in a dry Manhattan?
2 measures of rye whiskey
1/2 measure of dry vermouth
What are the ingredients in a Sweet Martini?
2 measures gin
1 measure of sweet vermouth
What are the ingredients in a Perfect Martini?
2 measures gin
1/2 measure of sweet vermouth
1/2 measure of dry vermouth
What are the ingredients in a Dry Martini?
2 measures Gin
1/2 measure of dry Vermouth
What are the ingredients in a Negroni?
BUILD
1/3 Gin
1/3 sweet vermouth
1/3 Campari
Soda water is optional
What are the ingredients in an Old-Fashioned?
1 large measure of rye whiskey
Angostura bitters
Cube of sugar
Small amount of water
What are the ingredients in a Pimm's No.1?
2 ozs of Pimm's
top with Lemonade
What are the ingredients in a Pink Gin?
2 ozs Plymouth Gin
Angostura bitters
iced water
What are the ingredients in a Pink Lady?
2 ozs of dry Gin
1/2 measure of Grenadine
1 egg white
What are the ingredients in a Pina Colada?
1 large measure of white rum
1/2 baby size bottle of pineapple juice
1 measure of coconut cream
What are the ingredients in a Pousse-Cafe?
Layered drinks of syrups, liqueurs, and spirits
What are the ingredients in a Rusty Nail?
2 parts Scotch whisky
1 part Drambuie
serve with lemon
What are the ingredients in a Screwdriver?
2 oz of Vodka
1 baby size orange juice
What are the ingredients in a Sidecar?
2 parts Brandy
1 part Cointreau
1 part fresh lemon juice
What are the ingredients in Sours?
a spirit
a liqueur or syrup
fresh fruit juice
sometimes egg white
shaken
What are the ingredients in a Whisky Sour?
2 oz of Scotch Whisky
1/2 oz of Gomme Syrup
Juice of 1/2 lemon
1/2 egg white (optional)
What are the ingredients in a Tequila Sunrise?
2 oz Tequila
1 baby size bottle of orange juice
Pour small amount of grenadine down glass
What are the ingredients in a White Lady?
2 parts London dry gin
1 part Cointreau
1 part fresh lemon juice
What is the liqueur or spirit in a Calypso coffee?
Tia Maria
What is the liqueur or spirit in a Caribbean coffee?
Rum
What is the liqueur or spirit in a DOM or Monk's coffee?
Benedictine
What is the liqueur or spirit in a Gaelic or Highland coffee?
Scotch whisky
What is the liqueur or spirit in an Irish coffee?
Irish whiskey
What is the liqueur or spirit in a Prince Charles coffee?
Drambuie
What is the liqueur or spirit in a Royal coffee?
Cognac, flamed
What is the liqueur or spirit in a Rudesheimer coffee?
Asbach brandy
What is the liqueur or spirit in a Witches coffee?
Strega
How are VDNs produced?
VDNs are produced by adding neutral spirit to fermenting must to arrest the fermentation and raising the alcohol level to 15-18 percent abv.
Name 8 VDNs and their general locations.
Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise (Vaucluse in Cotes-du-Rhone)
Muscat de Rivesaltes (Roussillon)
Rivesaltes (Roussillon)
Muscat de Frontignan (Languedoc)
Muscat de Setubal (Terras Do Sado)
Maury (Roussillon)
Banyuls (South of France)
Rasteau (Southern Rhone)
How are VDLs produced?
VDNs are produced by adding grape spirit to must before any fermentation has taken place. Alcohol level is around 16-17 percent abv.
What is another name for VDLs?
Mistelle
Name 4 VDLs and the grape spirit used for their production.
Pineau des Charentes - Cognac
Floc de Gascogne -Armagnac
Ratafia de Champagne - Marc de Champagne
Australia's muscats and Tokays - Muscadelle wines
Describe production of London Dry Gin
-White grain spirit is column distilled to 90-94%abv
-pot stilled with Juniper and other botanicals
-diluted to 40 abv and bottled
How are Spirits produced?
Spirits are produced by the distillation of alcoholic liquids made from cereal, fruits, plants, sugar cane, and others.
What is the purpose of distillation?
Distillation concentrates the strength and flavors of the liquor by removing most of the water
What are liqueurs?
Liqueurs are sweetened flavoured spirits produced by blending herbs, spices and other flavorings with neutral spirit or by distillation of a liquid from the fruit itself
How is beer made?
Beers are the results of fermenting the product obtained by steeping malted barley and/or other grains in very hot water to extract sugars, flavorings, and color before boiling it with hops and extra sugar.
Describe the production of Vodka
-Fermented grain or molasses is distilled in continuous still
-filtered through charcoal filters
-Sold between 35-45% abv
Name and describe the 2 distinct ways of producing of whisky
1. Malt whisky which is made from malted barley and double distilled in pot still
2. Grain whisky which is made from usually unmalted barley and maize and distilled in continuous still
Describe Single Malt whisky
100% malted barley Whisky from a single distillery
Describe Vatted Malt whisky
A blend of malts from more than one distillery.
Describe Blended whisky
A blend of malt and grain whisky
Describe single grain whisky
a grain Whisky from one distillery (not made from one type of grain)
Name the 4 regions in which Malt whisky may come from and the most important
Highland - most important
Lowland
Campeltown
Islay
Name 5 distilleries located in Speyside
Glenfiddich, Glen Grant, Glenlivet, Balvanie, and Knockando
What's the general aging requirement for Scotch?
-Must be aged in Scotland in oak casks for no less than three years
What are 3 key ways that Irish whiskey differs from Scottish whiskey?
-Made from a blend of malted and unmalted barley with some grain
- Majority made by continuous still method
- Peat rarely used in the malting process
Describe Bourbon whiskey
-must be made of a grain mixture of at least 51% corn
-distilled in continuous still
-matured in oak casks for a minimum of four years
Name and describe the 3 basic types of Rum
Golden and spiced rum – color from oak maturation and flavored with spices
Dark Rum – fermentation started with Dunder &matured in wood for 5-7 years. Adjusted with caramel.
White or Silver Rum – distilled in continuous still &matures 1 year in glass or stainless steel
Name 4 citrus liqueurs besides Grand Marnier
Cointreau
Curacao
Triple Sec
Van der Hume
Name 2 chocolate liqueurs
Creme de Cacao
Royal mint chocolate liqueur
Name 2 coffee liqueurs
Kahlua
Tia Maria
Name 4 cream liqueurs
Amarula
Baileys Original Cream liqueur
Devonshire Royal Cream liqueur
Sheridans
Name a caraway flavored liqueur
Kummel
Name 2 french liqueurs made from secret recipes that contain herbs, spices, etc, and are aged in wood
Benedictine and Chartreuse
Name 2 liqueurs flavored with apricot and apricot kernals
Amaretto and Apricot Brandy
Where are Riquewihr and Ribeauville located?
Alsace
What is Gentil and where can it be found?
-Gentil is found in Alsace
-blend of 2 or more grape varieties BUT must contain a minimum of 50% Riesling, Gewurz, Pinot Gris, or Muscat
Where is Sylvaner a permitted varietal for Grand Cru classification?
Zolzenberg
What does "mis en bouteille au Chateau" mean?
In Bordeaux, it means that the wine was bottled at the the chateax winery.
How large are barriques in Bordeaux?
225 L
How long is wines from the Medoc left in oak casks?
1 1/2 to 2 years
Name the second wine produced by the following:
1. Chateau Latour
2. Chateau Lafite
3. Chateau Haut-Brion
4. Chateau Margaux
1. Chateau Latour -Les Forts de Latour
2. Chateau Lafite - Carruades de Lafite
3. Chateau Haut-Brion - Chateau Bahans Haut-Brion
4. Chateau Margaux - Pavillon Rouge du Chateau Margaux
What does the River Ciron contribute to the wines of it's bordering areas?
Humidity which aids in attracting Botrytis to the vines in Sauternes.
What is Bourgogne Passetoutgrains?
a blend of 1/3 Pinot Noir and the rest Gamay
Where is Fixin and Corgoloin?
Cote de Nuits
What makes Musigny unique?
Only Grand Cru in the Cote de Nuits that produces both red and white wines.
Name the sub districts of the Central vineyards (5)
1. Sancerre
2. Pouilly-sur Loire
3. Menetou-Salon
4. Quincy
5. Reuilly
Pouilly-sur Loire produces two AC white wines, what are they and what is the difference?
1. Pouilly Fume - made from SB
2. Pouilly-sur Loire - made from Chesselas
Name the sub districts of Touraine (7)
1. Vouvray
2. Montlouis
3. Jasnieres
4. Bourgeil
5. Chinon
6. Coteaux du Loir
7. Cheverny
Name the sub districts of Anjou (4)
1. Anjou
2. Saumur
3. Savennieres
4. Coteaux-du-Layon
What is the style of the best wines from Saumur?
Cremant de Loire AC - Dry sparkling wines made from Chenin Blanc plus a maximum of 20% Chardonnay
What is the outstanding wine made in Coteaux du Layon?
Sweet white dessert wine made from Chenin Blanc
Name the two AOCs in Coteaux du Layon known for making high quality sweet dessert wine
Quarts de Chaume and Bonnezeaux
What style of wine does Savennieres make and what are the two ACs within that produces this style?
Dry white wine from Chenin Blanc
1. Coulee-de-Serrant
2. La Roche-aux-Moines
Where are Vienna and Avignon located?
Rhone
Where are gallettes found and how are they beneficial?
CdP and they are beneficial bc they help to drain the ground, act as storage heaters to warm the vines, and prevent soil from drying out.
Name one of the top estates of CdP
Chateau Beaucastel, Chateau Rayas
What is the only French AC for rose wines exclusively?
Tavel
Describe the types and style of wines produced in Bergerac AC.
Dry reds produced from Cabernet and Merlot
Whites from SB and Semillon similar in style to Sauternes
Describe Bergerac Sec.
Dry white wines made from Semillon and SB
Describe the types and style of wines produced in Pecharment AC
Dry wines produced from the Bordeaux red grapes that can age up to 10 years
Describe the types and style of wines produced in Monbazillac
The wines are similar in style to Sauternes but of a much lower quality.
Describe the type and style of wine produced in Cahors AC
Dry reds made from Malbec
What kind of wines are produced in Gaillac AC (generally)?
Dry reds, whites, roses, and sparkling wines made mostly from local varietals.
Describe and name the two notable wines produced in Jura AC.
Chateau-Chalon - a vin jaune produced from Flor development on Savignin and aged for 6 years.
Vin de Paille - Sweet wine produced from grapes that have been left out to dry on wicker before fermentation
Name and generally describe a notable AC in Savoie
Roussette de Savoie is a dry white produced from a local varietal
Jurancon AC most notably produces what kind of wine
and excellent spicy sweet dessert wine high in alcohol
What kind of wine does Madiran AC produce?
Dry red made from a blend of up to 40-60% Tannat
Name 5 VDNs of the Languedoc/Roussillon and their styles
Banyuls AC -Red, R, W
Banyuls Grand Cru AC-Red, R, W
Maury AC-Red, R, W
Rivesaltes AC-Red, R, W
Muscat de Rivesaltes ONLY rose or white
Name the DOCGs of Piedmont
(9)
Barolo DOCG
Barbaresco DOCG
Ghemme DOCG
Gattinara DOCG
Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore DOCG
Roero DOCG
Asti DOCG
Moscato d'Asti DOCG
Cortese di Gavi DOCG
Name 2 communes of Barbaresco
1. Barbaresco
2. Nieve
3. Treiso
Name at least 2 major sub regions of Barolo
1. La Morra
2. Barolo
3. Serralunga D’Alba
4. Castiglione-Falleto
5. Monforte D’Alba
Name the important DOCGs of Lombardy (3)
1. Franciacorta DOCG
2. Valtellina Superiore DOCG
3. Oltrepo Pavese DOCG
What are the grapes used to produce Franciacorta?
1. Chardonnay
2. Pinot Bianco
3. Pinot Nero (Pinot Noir)
What kind of wine is produced in Valtellina Superiore DOCG?
Red wines made from a minimum of 90% Nebbiolo
Name 2 subregions of Valtellina Superiore DOCG
1. Grumello
2. Inferno
3. Sassella
4. Valgella
What kind of wine is produced in Oltrepo Pavese DOCG?
Dry reds from Pinot Nero
Name 4 important DOC/Gs of the Veneto
Bardolino Superiore DOCG
Amarone della Valpolicella DOC
Recioto di Soave DOCG
Soave Superiore DOCG
What are the varietals used to produce Soave Superiore DOCG?
Garganega
Trebbiano
Chardonnay
What are the varietals used to produce Amarone della Valpolicella DOC?
Corvina with Rondinella making up rest of the blend
What's the sparkling wine of the Veneto?
Prosecco
What are passito grapes?
dried grapes
What is the ripasso method?
process of adding standard Valpolicella to the lees left from a Recioto fermentation and allowing a second fermentation to take place
What are two outstanding DOC zones in Friuli-Venezia-Giulia?
Colli Orientali del Friuli DOC
Collio DOC
What are the DOCGs in Friuli-Venezia-Giulia and their styles?
Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit DOCG - sweet wine made from Picolit
Ramandolo DOCG - sweet wine made from passito Friulano grapes
What was the first white wine to be granted DOCG status?
Albana di Romagna
Name the 6 DOCGs of Tuscany
Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
Carmignano DOCG
Chianti DOCG
Chianti Classico DOCG
Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG
Name 3 subzones of Chianti
Chianti Colli Aretini
Chianti Colli Fiorentini
Chianti Colli Senesi
Chianti Colline Pisane
Chianti Montalbano
Chianti Rufina
Chianti Montispertoli
How long is Brunello di Montalcino aged before release?
5 years
What is the varietal used in Vino Nobile di Montepulciano?
Prugnolo Gentile
What was the first wine to receive DOCG status?
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
What is the name of the DOC used to bring in Sassicaia?
Bolgheri DOC
This DOC was an attempt to classify all of the vineyards around Montalcino that were making so called Super-Tuscan wines.
Sant Antimo DOC
What are the varietals used to produce Carmignano DOCG?
Sangiovese
Canaiolo Nero
Cabernet
other varietals
What are the varietals used to produce Morellino di Scansano DOCG?
100% Sangiovese
What's the name of the sweet passito wine produced in Tuscany?
Vin Santo
What does abboccato mean?
semi-sweet
Where is Orvieto located and which varietals are used for it's production?
Located in Umbria
50% min. Trebbiano with Malvasia and Verdelho
Name the two DOCGs of Umbria
Sagrantino di Montefalco DOCG
Torgiano Rosso Riserva DOCG
How long does Torgiano Rosso Riserva DOCG need to be aged before it can be sold as such?
3 years
Which varietals are used to produce Torgiano Rosso Riserva DOCG?
Sangiovese, Canaiolo Nero, Cabernet Sauvignon
Which varietal(s) are used to produce Sagrantino di Montefalco?
Sagrantino
Where is Rosso Conero DOCG located and what is the varietal used to produce it?
The Marche and Montepulciano
What is the only DOCG of Abruzzo and what is the varietal used to produce it?
Montepulciano d’Abruzzo Colline Termane DOCG. Montepulciano is the varietal.
What is the most important DOCG for red wine in Campania and what is the varietal used to produce it?
Taurasi DOCG is made from the Aglianico grape
What are the two white wine producing DOCGs of Campania and which varietal(s) are used to produce each?
Fiano de Avellino DOCG - Fiano
Greco di Tufo DOCG - Greco
Where is Primitivo DOC located?
Puglia
What is Sicily's only DOCG and which varietals are used to produce it?
Cerasuolo di Vittoria DOCG is produced from Nero d'Avola and Frappato
What is Sardinia's only DOCG and which varietals are used to produce it?
Vermentino di Gallura is produced from Vermentino
What are the aging regulations for wines labeled Crianza?
Reds must age a minimum of 2 years with at least 6 months in cask.
Whites and rosados must age a minimum of 12 months with at least 6 months in cask.
What are the aging regulations for wines labeled Reserva?
Red wines must age for 3 years with a minimum 1 year in cask. Whites and rosés must age 2 years with a minimum 6 months in cask.
What are the aging regulations for wines labeled Gran Reserva?
Red wines must age for 5 years with a minimum 1.5 years in cask. Whites and rosés must age 4 years with a minimum 6 months in wood.
What is the largest demarcated wine DO in Spain?
La Mancha
What are the 3 DOCa of Spain?
Rioja
Priorat
Ribera Del Duero
DO that makes good quality reds from Monastrell.
Jumilla
What is Valdepenas and which varietals are used?
Valdepenas is a DO in Spain
Cencibel (Temp) for reds
Airen for whites
Roses and light reds from a mixture
Where is Montilla Moriles and what kind of wine is produced?
Montilla Moriles is located in Spain and it produces strong white wines made from PX and blended in Solera system.
How are the sweeter style wines in Montilla Moriles produced?
Fortification
What usually happens to dry white wines in Montilla Moriles?
Dry white wines are attacked by Flor
What are the most highly rated wines of Navarra DO and which varietals are used in it's production?
Roses made mostly from Grenache
Name 2 sub-districts of Navarra
Baja Montana
Ribera Alta
Ribera Baja
Tierra Estella
Valdizarbe
What is the main white varietal of Navarra?
Viura
Where is Cava located?
Penedes
What are the 3 sub regions of Penedes?
Baix-Penedes
Medio-Penedes
Alt-Penedes
What are the two main grapes used for production in Cava and which sub-region are they mostly grown?
Xarello and Macabeo are mostly grown in Medio-Penedes.
Where are top quality grapes grown in Priorat?
In slate soils on the slopes of the Priorat mountains.
What are the varietals used to produce Priorat red wines? (6)
Grenache, Carinena, Cab Sauv, Syrah, Merlot, and Tempranillo
What is the DO surrounding Priorat and what kind of wines are produced there?
Montsant surrounds Priorat and uses the same blend; Grenache, Carinena, Cab Sauv, Syrah, Merlot, and Tempranillo
Where is Vega Sicilia located?
Ribera Del Duero
What are the varietals used to produce Ribera Del Duero red wines?
Mostly Tempranillo with the rest of the blend smaller amounts of Grenache, Cab Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec
What is the name of a high quality red wine in Ribera Del Duero made from 100% Tempranillo?
Pesquera
Name 3 subzones of Rias Baixas
Val do Salnes
Condado do Tea
O Rosal
Soutomaior
Ribeira do Ulla
What are the 3 subdistricts of Rioja?
Rioja Alta
Rioja Altavesa
Rioja Baja
What are the varietals used to produce white wines from Rioja?
Viura
Malvasia
Grenache Blanc
What is Rueda DO best known for producing?
Best white wine producing regions in Spain made from at least 50% Verejo plus Viura
What are the varietal regulations for Rueda Espumoso and Rueda Superior?
Must contain a minimum of 85% Verdejo
What is the traditional wine style of Tarragona?
Tarrogona Classisco Licoroso which is a sweet red fortified wine matured in oak.
What kind of wine does Toro DO mainly produce?
Dry red wines based on Gernacha and Tempranillo
Name 3 subareas of Vinho Verde
Amarante*
Ave
Baiao
Basto*
Cavado
Lima
Moncao*
Paiva
Sousa
What is Setubal and where is it found?
Setubal is a fortified dessert wine and is produced in Terras Do Sado VR in Portugal.
The name of the first red wine of real quality produced in the Douro DOC
Barca Velha
What are the main varieties used for red wines in the Douro?
Touriga Nacional,
Tinta Cao
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
What are the varietals used for the best red wines in the Dao?
Touriga Nacional
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
Alfrocheiro
Which grape dominates Bairrada and what kind of wine does it produce?
Baga is the dominant varietal and it makes up a minimum of 50% of the red blends and some of the best reds found in Portugal.
What is Colares and what is it famous for?
Colares is a DOC and it is famous for it's ungrafted Ramisco vines.
When can Setubal be labeled Moscatel de Setubal?
When produced from a minimum of 85% Muscat d'Alexandria
What is Garrafeira and what is it's significance?
Garrafeira is a label term unique to Portugese wines. All wines using this term must have
1. vintage stated on label
2. extra .5 abv above the minimum for its DOC
3. Specific aging requirements
What is fleubereinigung?
relocation of vineyards to improve accessibility to vines
Define Spatlese (German)
grapes that are selectively picked at least 7 days after the main harvest starts for that specific variety
Define Auslese (German)
specially selected, perfectly ripened bunches of grapes that are hand-picked and then pressed separately from other grapes.
Define Beerenauslese (German)
specially selected, overripe grapes that are hand-picked and then pressed separately from other grapes
Define Trockenbeerenauslese (German)
specially selected, overripe grapes that are left on the vine until nearly dry and picked one by one
Which Anbaugebiete is Assmanshausen located?
Rheingau
Define Kabinett (German)
Kabinett wines must contain minimum amounts of natural sugar depending on the region/variety
What is the main varietal of the Rheingau?
Riesling
Where is Bereich Johannisberg located?
Rheingau
What are the two best single vineyards of the Rheingau?
Schloss Johannisberg and Schloss Volrads
What are and where are Bingen, Nierstein, and Wonnegau located
Bereichs in Rheinhessen
What's the main grape varietal of Rheinhessen?
Muller-Thurgau
What are the best wines produced in Rheinhessen?
Riesling
What is the main wine produced in Rheinhessen?
Liebfraumilch
What is Liebfraumilch (3)?
-blended QbA wine from the Rheingau, Rheinhessen, Pfalz, or Nahe
-must contain 70% of Riesling, Muller-Thurgau, Silvaner, or Kerner
-semi-sweet
What's the largest region in terms of land mass in Germany?
Rheinhessen
What's the largest producing region in Germany?
Pfalz
Where is Bereich Mittelhaardt-Deutsche Weinstrasse?
Pfalz
What is the most planted varietal in Pfalz?
Muller-Thurgau
The best wines of the Pfalz come from a few villages (8). Name 4
Bad Durkheim
Deidesheim
Forst
Kallstadt
Neustadt
Wachenheim
Ungstein
What is the most planted varietal in Nahe?
Riesling
Nahatel is the single Bereich in which Anbaugebiete?
Nahe
What are the two most important towns in Nahe?
Bad Kreuznach and Schloss Bockelheim
Which Anbaugebiete is divided into three Bereichs: Maindreieck, Mainviereck and Steigerwald?
Franken
What is the most planted varietal in Franken?
Muller-Thurgau
Which varietal produces the best Franken wine?
Silvaner
The best Franken wines are produced from vineyards around which town?
Wurzberg
What are the names of two outstanding vineyards in Franken?
Stein and Leiste
Where are the Bereichs of Bernkastel, Burg, and Cochem located?
Mosel
Where is the Bereich of Moseltor located?
Mosel
Where is the Bereich of Ruwertal located?
Mosel
Where is the Bereich of Saar located?
Mosel
What kind of soil is found in Mosel and how does it benefit the grapes?
red slate
-radiates heat onto the grapes day and night helping to ripen them
-increases drainage
-imparts own character to wine
What is the most important grape of the Mosel?
Riesling
Because of the small amount of carbon dioxide gas in the wine when bottled, Mosel wines usually have this quality (german term)
Spritzig
Name some of the best villages in Bereich Bernkastel (9)
Bernkastel
Brauneberg
Erden
Graach
Neumagen
Piesport
Trittenheim
Urzig
Wehlen
Zeltingen
Name some of the best villages in Bereich Ruwertal (2)
Eitelsbach
Mertesdorf
Name some of the best villages in Bereich Saar (3)
Ockfen
Sharzhof
Wiltengen
What kind of wine is Ahr best known for?
Spatburgunder
Baden wines are identical to wine of which other Anbaugebiete?
Franken
The Rhine river separates the southern part of Baden from what?
the Alsace wine area
Where are the steepest vineyards in the world?
Mittelrhein
What is the most important grape of the Mittelrhein?
Riesling
What are the two most important varietals in Hessische Bergstrasse?
Riesling and Muller-Thurgau
What is the most important grape of Saale-Unstrut?
Muller-Thurgau
Schlossneuenburg is the most important and largest Bereich in which anbaugebiete?
Saale-Unstrut
What is the most important grape of Sachsen?
Muller-Thurgau
Which anbaugebiete is noted for its Schillerwein production?
Wurteemberg
What is Schillerwein?
Rose wine (Germany)
What are the main varietals of Wurttemberg?
red Trollinger, Lemberger, Schwarzriesling (Meunier)
What's the difference between Deutscher Sekt and sekt?
Deutscher Sekt is sparkling wine made from German grapes. sekt is sparkling wine produced in germany from imported wine that may or may not be blended with German wine.
What is Shaumwein (Austria)?
sparkling wine
What is strohwein (Austria)?
a term for wine made by grapes of Beernauslese level which have been dried on straw mats for a minimum of 3 months.
What are the 4 principal wine regions of Austria?
1. Niederosterreich (L. Austria and Burgenland)
2. Wien (Vienna)
3. Steiermark (Styria)
4. Burgland Osterreich
What are the three "Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus"categories?
1. Steinfeder
2. FederSpiel
3. Smaragd
What are the subregions of the Niederosterreich (7)?
1. Wienviertal
2. Traisental
3. Kremstal
4. Kamptal
5. Wachau
6. Thermenregion
7. Carnuntum
What are the subregions of Burgenland?
1. Neusiedlersee
2. Neusiedlersee-Hugelland
3. Mittelburgenland
4. Sudburgenland
For what kind of wine is Neusiedlersee renowned?
botrytized wine
How does Lake Neusiedl affect the grapes grown on it's banks?
Causes the grapes to be attacked by Botrytis
Aside from it's outstanding botrytized wines, what other good quality wines are being produced in Neusiedlersee?
Red wines from Zweigelt, Blaufrankisch, and Cabernet Sauvignon
-very good Chardonnay
Neusiedlersee-Hugelland is known for what style of wine?
Ausbruch wine
What is the town of Rust known for?
production of Ausbruch wine
What is Ausbruch wine?
wine made by adding fresh grapes to botrytized grapes of TBA quality
What style of wine is Mittelburgenland and Sudburgenland known for making?
Spicy reds made from Blaufrankisch grapes
What are the 3 subdistricts of Steiermark?
Sud-osteiermark
Sud-steiermark
Weststeiermark
Sud-osteiermark Sud-steiermark produce high quality wines from which varietal(s)?
Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
What is Switzerland's best known wine?
Dole
What is Dole?
a red wine made from a blend of a minimum 50% Pinot Noir and Gamay
OPAP designations are for what kind of wines?
dry table wines
OPE designations are for what kind of wines?
sweet wines from the Muscat or Mavrodaphne grape
What are the OPE and OPAP aging requirements for Reserve and Grand Reserve reds and whites?
Reserve Reds - 3 years
Reserve Whites -2 years
Grand Reserve Reds - 4 years
Grand Reserve Whites - 3 years
What's the most important red grape of Macedonia?
Xinomavro
What are the sub regions of Macedonia (4)?
1. Cotes de Meliton
2. Anyndeo
3. Naoussa
4. Goumenissa
What is the style and producer of the excellent red wine produced in Cotes de Meliton?
Chateau Carras produces a red made from Cab Sauvignon, Cab Frank and Limnio.
Which Macedonian subregions does Boutari make an excellent red wine and what varietal is used?
Xinomavro produced in Naoussa and Amyndeo
What is the only appellation of Epirus and what style of wine is produced?
Zitsa AOSQ is a still or sparkling wine made from Debina
What are the two subregions of the Peleponnese?
Nemea AOSQ
Mavrodaphne of Patras AOSQ
Which Pelopennese subregion does Boutari make an high quality red wine and what varietal is used?
dry red Agiorgitiko made in Nemea AOSQ
What is the style and varietal of Mavrodaphne of Patras?
A slightly fortified sweet red dessert wine made from Mavrodaphne
The following appellations can be found where: Crete, Rhodes, Samos, Lemnos
Aegean Islands
Where is Sitia AOSQ located?
Crete
What is the best appellation on the island of Rhodes?
Muscat of Rhodes AOC
What is the name of the famous sweet white dessert VDN of Samos?
Muscat of Samos AOC
What is "stefani" and where can it be found?
Stefani is a round basket shape that vines are trained in to protect grapes from wind since they hang in the middle. It is found in Santorini
Which island in the Cyclades do Boutari and Sigelas produce excellent wines from the Assyrtiko grape?
Santorini
From which varietal does Santorini makes it's best whites?
Assyrtiko
Where is "the excellent" Cava Tsantalis and what is it a blend of?
Santorini and blend of Xinomavro and Cab Sauv
Where is the Robola grape found and what kind of wine does it make?
unique to island of Kefalonia and produces Kefalonia AOSQ dry white wine
What is Minosegi Bor and where is it found?
Minosegi Bor on a label in Hungary indicates quality wine.
What are the 3 regions of Hungary?
Trans-Danube
Great Plain
Northern Hungary
Where is Lake Belaton?
Trans-Danube in Hungary
Where is Somlo located and what kind of "high reputation" wines does it produce?
Somlo is in the Trans-Danube subregion in Hungary. Somlo produces strong flavored, powerful, white wines from the Furmint, Haraslevelu, Olaszrisling, and Juhfark grapes.
Where is Szekszard located and what kind of wines is it known for making?
Szekszard is in the Trans-Danube subregion in Hungary. Szekszard produces strong red wines made from Kadarka.
Where is Villany located?
Villany is a subregion of Villany-Siklos which in in the Trans-Danube region of Hungary.
Villany has a reputation for making the best red wine in Hungary using what varietals?
Kekoportos, Kekfrancos, Cab Sauvignon, and Merlot
Where is Siklos located?
Siklos is a subregion of Villany-Siklos which in in the Trans-Danube region of Hungary.
What kind of wine does Siklos produce?
white wines from Olaszrizling and Haraslevalu
What is the best known Hungarian red wine and where is is located (region, subregion)?
Egri Bikaver (Bull's Blood of Eger) located in Eger in Northern Hungary
What varietals are used to make Egri Bikaver (Bull's Blood of Eger)?
Kekfrancos, Cab Sauvignon, Cab Franc, and Merlot
Which subregion of Hungary is Tokaj-Hegyalia located?
Northern Hungary
What are the varietals that produce Tokaj-Hegyalia?
Furmint,
Haraslevelu
Muskotaly
Zeta
What is Aszu?
Aszu is dried rotting grapes
What is Tokaji Szamorodni?
Tokaji Szamorodni is a full bodied white wine made from a mixture of Aszu and non Aszu grapes. It's made when Botrytis hasn't sufficiently attacked enough grapes to make aszu.
What is a gonc?
136 liter cask traditionally used to measure the base wine of Tokaji.
Aszu 3 puttonyos =? g/L
Aszu 4 puttonyos =? g/L
Aszu 5 puttonyos =? g/L
Aszu 6 puttonyos =? g/L
Aszu 3 puttonyos = 60 g/L
Aszu 4 puttonyos = 90 g/L
Aszu 5 puttonyos = 120 g/L
Aszu 6 puttonyos = 150 g/L
Aszuesszencia = ? g/L
Aszuesszencia = 180 g/L
Naturesszencia = ? g/L
Naturesszencia = 250 g/L
What is the % of grapes that wines carrying a state, county, or region appellation must have from that state or county (US)?
75%
If vintage is stated, the % of grapes from that year has to be (%)? (US)
85%
What does estate bottled signify?
100% of grapes come from source owned by the winemaker.. Wine must also be made and reared on the same estate
What are the 5 general wine-growing areas in CA?
North Coast
Central Valley
Sierra Foothills
Central Coast
South Coast
Which general region in CA produces 85% of all California wine?
Central Valley
According to the Meritage Association, what is the highest percent that a single varietal can make up in a Meritage blend?
90%
Lake, Mendocino, Sonoma, and Napa counties are part of which area?
North Coast
Which AVA is sandwiched between the Mayacamas and Vaca mountains?
Napa Valley
What's the main ecological factor of Napa Valley?
the cool wind and fog that is sucked in from San Pablo Bay during the afternoon, cooling the vines.
Carneros is kept cool by what two ecological factors?
Proximity to the ocean and SF bay.
Where is Russian River Valley (county and region)? What is it's noted varietals?
Sonoma County, North Coast. Pinot and Chardonnay
Where is Alexander Valley (county and region)? What is it's noted varietal?
Sonoma County, North Coast. Cabernet
Where is Dry Creek Valley (county and region)? What is it's noted varietals?
Sonoma County, North Coast. Cabernet and Syrah
Where is Yountville (county and region)? What is it's noted varietal?
Napa County, North Coast. Cabernet
Where is Oakville (county and region)? What is it's noted varietal?
Napa County, North Coast. Bordeaux varietals
Where is Rutherford (county and region)? What is it's noted varietal?
Napa County, North Coast. Cabernet
Where is Anderson Valley (county and region)? What is it's noted varietals?
Mendocino County, North Coast. Pinot Noir, Riesling, Gewurz
Where is McDowell Valley(county and region)? What is it's noted varietals?
Mendocino County, North Coast. Rhone varietals
Where is Clear Lake AVA (county and region)?
Lake County, North Coast
Where is Lodi AVA (county and region)?
Central Valley, North Coast
Which area produces 75% of all California wines?
Central Valley, California North Coast
Where is E&J Gallo located?
Central Valley, California North Coast
Which larger AVA is Monterey Bay AVA located?
San Francisco bay area AVA
Which larger AVA is Arroyo Seco AVA located? Which county is is located?
Central South Coast AVA, Monterey County
Which larger appellation is Paso Robles AVA under? Which county is is located?
Central South Coast AVA, San Luis Obispo County
Which wine is Paso Robles AVA famous for making?
Cabernet
The Rhone Rangers are gaining attention making syrah in which AVA?
Paso Robles AVA
Which larger appellation is Edna Valley AVA under? Which county is is located?
Central South Coast AVA, San Luis Obispo County
What wine is Edna Valley AVA famous for making?
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
What effect does the Cascade Mountains have on Willamette Valley AVA?
rainshadow effect
Name some top producers in Willamette Valley (5)
Domaine Serene
Eyrie Vineyards
Cristom
Bergstom
Domaine Drouhin
Name the 6 subappellations of Willamette Valley
1. Chehalem Mountains
2. Ribbon Ridge
3. Dundee Hills
4. Yamhill-Carlston District
5. McMinnville
6. Eola-Amity Hills
What is the minimum percentage that a wine must have in Oregon if it states a varietal? What is the exception?
90% except Cabernet Sauvignon which is 75%
If a wine produced in Oregon states a designated area, what percentage has to be from stated area?
100%
How does the Columbia River majorly benefit Washington state in terms of grape growing?
Washington State relies on the Columbia River for irrigation
What are some of the subappellations in Columbia George AVA?
Red Mountain AVA
Wahluke Slope AVA
Yakima Valley AVA
Walla Walla Valley AVA
Horse Heaven Hills AVA
Rattlensnake Hills AVA
If a varietal is stated on an Australian wine, what must be the minimum % of that varietal?
85%
If an origin is stated on an Australian wine, what must be the minimum % grapes from the stated origin?
85%
If a vintage is stated on an Australian wine, what must be the minimum % from that stated year?
85%
Which two GIs produce Rhine Riesling at its best?
Clare Valley and Eden Valley
Name the 4 Australian Wine Zones
1. Western Australia
2. South Australia
3. Victoria
4. New South Wales
What is the center of New South Wale's quality wine production?
Hunter Valley
What style of wine is predominant in the northern part of New South Wales?
dry white wine
What are some of the regions of Northern South Wales (7)?
Hasting River
Hunter
Mudgee
Orange
Cowra
Hilltops
Canberra District
The lower part of the Hunter Valley has a reputation for making what kind of wine? (2)
1. Excellent Semillon that can age for 10 years
2. Shiraz that can age for up to 20 years
Where is Riverina located and name 2 kind of wines that is known for making
Riverina is located in the lower part of South Wales

1. bulk wine
2. The outstanding De Bertoli Noble 1 dessert wine
Where is Tumbarumba located and what kind of wine is known for making?
Tumbarumba is located in the lower part of South Wales and is producing some of the best sparkling wine
What is the largest wine producing state in Australia?
1. South Australia
Name the 8 subappellations in South Australia.
1. Adelaide
2. Barossa
3. Far North
4. Fleurieu
5. Lower Murray
6. Limestone Coast
7. Mount Lofty Ranges
8. The Peninsulars
What are the MOST IMPORTANT regions in South Australia (12)?
1. Barossa Valley
2. Coonawarra Valley
3. Padthaway
4. McLaren Vale
5. Eden Valley
6. Clare Valley
7. Adelaide Hills
8. Langhorne Creek
9. Adelaide Plains
10. Southern Fleurieu
11. Wrattonbully
12. Riverland
Barossa Valley produces some of Australia's best __ (3)
1. Shiraz
2. Cabernet
3. Riesling
What is the leading Cabernet Sauvignon region in Australia?
Coonawarra
What is terra rossa and where is it found?
Terra Rossa is a type of soil and is found in Coonawarra
Which subdistrict is Hensche Hill producing wine?
High Eden of Eden Valley in South Australia
Which zone is Clare Valley and Adelaide Hills located?
Mount Lofty Ranges Zone
The high altitude of Clare Valley and Adelaide Hills helps in making these regions excellent area for what (4)?
Top quality Rieslings, Chardonnay, Cabernet, and Shiraz
What is the icon wine of South Australia?
Penfolds Grange
Name the two GIs where Pensfold Grange get their grapes, and what is the style of their wine?
1. Barossa and Adelaide
2. High 80s to 100% shiraz with Cabernet Sauvignon making up the rest
What kind of wine is Victoria known for producing?
sweet Muscat desert wines
What are some of the top GIs in Victoria (6)?
1. Geelong
2. Yarra Valley
3. Mornington Peninsula
4. Goulburn Valley
5. Grampians
6. King Valley
Which GI has established itself as the top Pinot Noir area in Australia?
1. Yarra Valley
What are two most important GIs for Muscat and Tokay fortified wines?
1. Rutherglen
2. Glenrowan
In Australia, Tokay is a synonym for which varietal?
Muscadelle
What are the aging requirements for Rutherglen Muscat and Tokay wines?
1. Rutherglen Muscat - 2-5 years
2. Rutherglen Classic Muscat -5-10 years
3. Rutherglen Grand 10-15 years
4. Rutherglen Rare -20 years+
Name 3 important regions in Tasmania
1. Pipers River region
2. Tamar Valley
3. Cole River
What 3 types of wine does Tasmania concentrate on?
1. Chardonnay
2. Pinot Noir
3. Sparkling wines
Name 6 important regions of Western Australia
1. Great Southern region
2. Margaret River
3. Pemberton
4. Perth Hills
5. Geographe
6. Swan Valley
What is the best GI in Western Australia and name the 3 varietals that it specializes.
Margaret River; Chardonany, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Semillon
Name the 3 varietals in which Pemberton specializes.
1. Chardonnay
2. Cabernet Sauvignon
3. Pinot Noir
Name 2 GIs of Queensland and which one produces higher quality wine
1. South Burnett
2. Granite Belt produces higher quality wines
Why was the Southeastern Australia region created?
Created to allow blending across states without breaking the label integrity scheme.
Where are the most Easterly and Southerly vines in the world located?
North Island
Name the regions of the North Island (6).
Northland
Auckland
Bay of Plenty/Waikato
Hawkes Bay
Gisborne
Wairarapa (includes Martinborough)
Name the regions of the South Island (4).
1. Marlborough
2. Nelson
3. Canterbury (includes Waipara)
4. Central Otago
What are the best red wines being produced in New Zealand?
Cabernet Sauvignon
In New Zealand, what percentage of grape varietal, vintage, origin must a wine have to be labeled as such?
85% for all 3 specifications
Which area was the first to be planted with grapes in New Zealand?
Northland on the North Island
Where is Gimblett Road and which varietal is it most suited to grow?
Hawkes Bay and syrah
Which area is the largest producer of red wine in New Zealand?
Hawkes Bay
Which area on the North Island produces the best Pinot Noir?
Martinborough in Wairarapa
Which area is the largest producer in New Zealand?
Marlborough
Where is the Awetere Valley and Wairau Valleys?
Marlborough
Which organization has developed and processes over half of New Zealand wine and with very high quality high standards?
Montana
Where is the Waipara Valley and the Canterbury Plains?
Canterbury
What is the main varietal of Canterbury?
Pinot Noir
What are 4 main subregions of Central Otago?
Alexandra
Wanaka
Gibbston
Kale Hayes
What makes up 70% of all plantings in Central Otago?
Pinot Noir
What are the best wines being produced in Gisborne?
Chardonnay
Name two regions in the North Island that produces the best wines from Cabernet Sauvignon?
Northland and Auckland
What is the reason to be believed why Chili has not been attacked by Phylloxera or oidium?
Isolation caused by the Andes and the Pacific Ocean
Name the 5 viticultural regions of Chile, what are two important ones?
1. Atacama
2. Coquimbo
3. Aconcagua*
4. Valle Central*
5. Sur
Elqui Valley and the Limari Valleys are two developing subregions in which region?
Coquimbo in Chile
Name the two subregions of Aconcagua
Valle del Aconcagua and Valle Casablanca
The reputation of Valle del Aconcagua is for what kind/style of wine?
Reputation for producing some of the best Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah of Chile
The reputation of Valle Casablanca is for what kind/style of wine?
Reputation for producing some of the best Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Carmenere of Chile
Vermonte, Caliterra, Errazuriz, and Montes are excellent producers in which region.
Region de Aconcagua
Which region is San Antonio located?
Region de Aconcagua
Which region in Chile produces the most wine?
Region de Valle Central
Name the 4 subregions of Region de Valle Central
1. Maipo
2. Rapel
3. Maule
4. Curico
60% of plantings in the Maipo Valley are of which varietal?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Rapel Valley has a reputation for producing top wines out of which 2 varietals?
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot
Which is Chile's largest wine region and what it's better produced varietals?
Maule Valley; Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Carmenere
Where are Lontue and Toro located?
Curico Valley in Valle Central
What is Argentina's second most important grape growing area to Mendoza? What are the main grapes?
Salta is the area; Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Torrentes are it's main varietals
What is Argentina's second largest producing area to Mendoza?
San Juan
What is the most important subregion in Mendoza?
The Uco Valley
What are the 3 important districts within the important subregion of Uco Valley?
Tupugato
San Carlos
Tunuyan
Virtually all vineyards in South Africa are located in which general area?
The southwestern Cape
Pinotage is a cross of which two varietals?
Pinot Noir and Cinsault
Where is the Kanonkop Estate located and what wine is it a benchmark producer?
Kanonkop Estate is located in Stellenbosh and it makes benchmark Pinotage
What is the percentage of grapes that The WO seal on a bottle guarantees originated from the specified production unit (estate, ward, district, or region)?
100%
What is the percentage of grapes that a WO wine must have if a varietal or vintage is stated on the bottle?
75%
Name 8 districts of the Coastal Region.
1. Stellenbosch *
2. Paarl *
3. Cape Point
4. Constantia
5. Darling
6. Tygerberg
7. Tulbagh *
8. Swartland
Name the 2 top wards of Paarl.
Franschoek and Wellington
What are the 5 best varietals/wine being produced in Paarl?
1. Chenin Blanc
2. Chardonnay
3. Pinotage
3. Shiraz
5. Cabernet Sauvignon
Along with Paarl and Overberg, this top quality red/white wine district forms the centre of S. Africa's winemaking industry.
Stellenbosch
Name 4 districts of the Breede River Valley Region
1. Robertson*
2. Breedlekloof*
3. Worcester*
4. Swellendam
What are the two very high quality wines that Robertson is known for producing?
1. Cabernet Sauvignon
2. Syrah
What is the most important are for brandy production in South Africa?
Worcester
Name the most important ward in Overberg?
Elgin
What two top quality wines is Walker Bay known for producing?
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
Elgin is making top quality wine from which varietal?
Sauvignon Blanc
What is most widely planted red varietal in South Africa?
Cabernet Sauvignon
What is the only district in the Northern Cape?
Douglas
What is the most Northerly wine region in France?
Champagne
Name the 5 areas that Champagne is divided.
1. Montagne de Reims
2. Vallee de la Marne
3. Cote des Blanc
4. Cote de Sezanne
5. Aube
Which two areas in Champagne are most black grapes grown?
Montagne de Reims and Vallee de la Marne
Which two areas in Champagne is most Chardonnay grown?
Cote des Blancs and Cote Sezanne
Name the only three methods of pruning allowed in Champagne
1. Guyot simple and double
2. Chablis
3. Cordon de Royat
What is the name of the vineyard grading system in Champagne?
echelle
Explain what CM means on a Champagne bottle.
CM means that the champagne has been made by a co-operative
-a cooperative that makes and sells Champagne under one or more brands that it owns
Explain what NM means on a Champagne bottle.
NM means that the wine has been sold under the House which made it
-traditionally referred to as a "house". Ex: Bollinger &Louis Roederer
Explain what RM means on a Champagne bottle.
RM means that the champagne is produced by a grower from their own grapes
-known as grower-producer or grower for short
Explain what RC means on a Champagne bottle.
RC means that the grower delivers grapes to a cooperative and in part or full payment, receives back ready made champagne
Explain what MA means on a Champagne bottle.
MA means a brand name owned by the purchaser such as a restaurant, supermarket, or wine merchant
Explain what SR means on a Champagne bottle.
SR means that a publicly registered firm set up by two or more growers, often related-who share premises to make and market their Champs under more than one brand
Explain what NR means on a Champagne bottle.
NR stands for Negocient-Distributeur which is a company that sells on champagne it did not make, to others who then retail it
What does the standard size press hold in Champagne? (kg)
2550 liters
What is the definition of vin de cuvee?
the first 2050 liters of the main champagne pressing
What is the definition of premier taille?
the final 500 liters of the main pressing in champagne wine production
What is the significance of assemblage in Champagne?
the hallmark or style of each champagne house
Who is credited with inventing la methode champenoise? (name and abbey)
Dom Perignon, cellar master at the Abbey in Hautvillers
Who is credited with inventing and developing the remuage process?
Madame Nicole -Barbe Cliquot-Ponsardin
What is remuage?
Remuage is the movement of sediment of dead yeasts cells caused by the second fermentation.
What is the other name that dosage is sometimes called?
liqueur d'expedition
Name two high quality rose producers in Champagne.
Gatinois and Paul Dethume
What is the primary varietal of Montagne de Reims and what are its Grand Cru Villages(9)?
Pinot Noir;

Ambonnay
Bouzy
Verzy
Verzenay
Louvois
Mailly
Sillery
Beaumont-sur-Vesle
Puisieux
What is the primary varietal of the Cotes des Blancs and what are its Grand Cru Villages(6)?
Chardonnay;

Mesnil-sur-Oger
Oger
Oiry
Chouilly
Cramant
Avize
What is the primary varietal of the Vallé de la Marne and what are its Grand Cru Villages(2)?
Pinot Munier;
Äy
Tours-sur-Marne
What is the primary varietal of the Côtes de Sézanne?
Chardonnay
What is the primary varietal of the Aube?
Pinot Noir
What is the only AC wine that permits the method of production for rose wine by blending red and white wines together?
Rose champagne
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Bollinger?
Grand Annee
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Krug (2)?
Krug Collection
Grand Cuvee (non-vintage)
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Laurent Perrier?
Grand Siecle (non-vintage)
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Louis Roederer?
Cristal
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Moet & Chandon?
Dom Perignon
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Perrier Jouet?
Belle Epoque
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Pol Roger?
Winston Churchill
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Pommery?
Cuvee Louise
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Ruinart?
Dom Ruinart
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Taittinger?
Comtes de Champagne
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Veuve Cliquot?
La Grande Dame
What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Jacquesson?
Grand Signature
Where is Glenrowan and Rutherglen located?
Northeast Victoria
What is Amtliche Prufungsnumber?
The control number on labels of QbA wine
What is Klassifizierte Lage?
Wines of superior quality from a single, terroir-driven, classified site which will be named on the label.
What is Gutsweine and Orstweine?
HIgh-quality basic wines which have a regional character
What are four regions of the Limestone coast?
Coonwarra, Mount Benson, Padthway and Wrattonbully
What is liqueur de tirage?
Measured quantities of liquid sugar, yeast, and a little tannin that produce a second fermentation in the bottle
How long do non-vintage champagnes mature on their lees?
Minimum of 15 months from the date of bottling
How long do vintage champagnes mature on their lees?
3 years from the date of bottling
What are the two methods of disgorgement?
the traditional method a la volee and the modern method, a la glace
What is the a la glace method?
Placing the bottle necks into a shallow trough containing freezing mixture which will freeze a small pellet of wine below the sediment
What is dosage?
The measured amount of sweetened wine that replaces the wine lost at degorgement
What determines the style of the wine that is made into Champagne?
The % of sugar syrup in the dosage
What is another name for dosage?
liqueur d'expedition
What are the 6 styles of Champagne from driest to sweetest?
1. Brut naturelle
2. Brut
3. Extra Sec
4. Sec
5. Demi-sec
6. Doux, rich
What is the difference between Petillant and Perlant wines?
Petillant means slightly sparkling and Perlant means very lightly sparkling
What's the Spanish equivalent to AOC?
DO
What's the Spanish equivalent to French VDQS?
VCIG
What's Spanish regional wine called?
VC (Vino Comarcal)
What's the lowest category of Spanish wine called?
VdM (Vino de Mesa)
Where is Priorat located?
Catalan
What is the quality level of Priorat?
DOQ
What is the highest Spanish classification of quality?
DOCa
What are Vinos de Pagos?
estate wines of particularly high quality.
How long do Crianza wines in Ribera Del Duero and Rioja have to be aged in oak before release?
1 year out of two years maturation before release
Describe Ruby Port (2)
1. Blend of young wines from different years
2. All which have been in barrels of tanks for 2-3 years
Describe Late-bottled Vintage Port (2)
1. Wine from a single year other than a declared vintage year
2. Matured in wood for 4-6 years
Describe Vintage Port (2)
1. Wines from the top vineyards only from very good years in which Port declares a vintage
2. Matured in cask for 2 years and then bottled and will mature and improve in bottle for 15-40 more years
Describe Single Quinta Port (2)
1. Grapes come from a given quinta in a single year
2. Matured in cask for 2 years and then bottled and will mature and improve in bottle for 15-40 more years
Describe Tawny Port (2)
1. Blend of wines from several years that yield a light colored wine
2. Ready for drinking when bottled
Describe Aged Tawny Port
1. Blend of Ports from several years and barrel aged
2. Tawny with indication of age (10, 20, 30 years), years represent style of Port, not the minimum age.
Describe Colheita Port
1. Tawny Ports made from a single vintage
2. Must be aged a minimum of 7 years
3. Ready for drinking when bottled
Define Remontage
French word for various systems of pumping over, circulating liquid in the fermentation vessel through the cap of grape solids during red wine fermentation.
Define Foulage
French for the wine-making operation of crushing grapes.
Define Macération Pelliculaire
French term for the prefermentation maceration of white grapes known as skin contact.
What is the Italian term for Botrytized wine?
Muffato
Define Dégorgement
French term for the disgorgement operations at the end of the traditional method of sparkling wine-making entailing the removal of a pellet of frozen sediment from the neck of each bottle.
Define Encépagement
Widely used French term for the mix of vine varieties planted on a particular property.
Define Veraison
Word used by English speakers for that intermediate stage of grape berry development which marks the beginning of ripening, when the grapes change from the hard, green state to their softened and colored form.
Name the 4 counties of CA's North Coast
Napa
Sonoma
Lake
Mendocino
Name the 15 AVAs (subappellations) of Napa
Wild Horse Valley
Stags Leap District
Howell Mountain
Spring Mountain District
Diamond Mountain District
Mount Veeder
Atlas Peak
Pope Valley
Rutherford
St Helena
Yountville
Oakville
Oak Knoll
Chiles Valley District
Los Carneros
Name the 12 AVAs (subappellations) of Sonoma
Sonoma Coast
Sonoma Mountain
Sonoma Valley
Sonoma County Green Valley
Bennett Valley
Alexander Valley
Knight's Valley
Rockpile
Chalk Hill
Dry Creek Valley
Russian River Valley
Carneros
Name 6 AVAs (subappellations) of Mendocino
Anderson Valley
Cole Ranch
Dos Rios
Potter Valley
Redwood Valley
McDowell Valley
Name some of the counties included in the Central Coast area
Santa Barbara
Monterey
Santa Clara
Santa Cruz
San Benito
San Luis Obispo
Paso Robles
Name some Washington AVAs (9)
Columbia Gorge
Columbia Valley
Horse Heaven Hills
Rattlesnake Hills
Red Mountain
Wahluke Slope
Walla Walla Valley
Yakima Slope
Puget Sound
Name some Bordeaux lookalikes in the Southwest
Bergerac (Sec, Côtes de, Côtes de Moelleux),

Buzet (Côtes de)

Côtes de Duras

Côtes du Marmandais

Montravel (Côtes de, Haut)

Monbazillac Montravel (Côtes de, Haut)

Monbazillac

Pecharment

Rosette