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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
suspected etiology of cerebral palsy
is believed to be lesions or abnormalities of the brain beginning in the early state of its development (based on 1992 definition by Mutch)
cause of cerebral palsy movement abnormalities
may be due to involvement of the cortex/deep white matter of the hemispheres, extrapyramidal motor system, or cerebellum – thus, the term “cerebral palsy” is a misnomer
incidence of CP
is seen in 1.5 to 2.5 per 1000 births
cerebral palsy risk factors before pregnancy
1.Maternal mental retardation, 2.Hyperthyroidism 3.Seizures even efore pregnancy 4.Two or more fetal deaths 5.A positive family history of CP; this may suggest specific chromosomal abnormalities 6.Metabolic abnormalities with an underlying genetic basis
cerebral palsy risk factors during pregnancy
1. Hypercoagulability – the most common cause of maternal death is thromboembolic disease 2. Obesity 3. Older age 4. C-section; overall, there has been an increase in the C-section rate in developed countries 5. Immobilization 6. History of previous thromboembolism 7. Estrogen use during pregnancy 8. Intrauterine exposure to infection or toxins 9. CNS malformations
Cerebral palsy riskfactors at birth
1 Breech (buttocks) or face coming out first rather than crown of head; 2.Placenta problems – bleeding, separating too quickly from the uterus 3.Umbilical cord problems 4Premature delivery; multiple births (twins, triplets, etc.)
Types of CP; CP is classified according to the type of abnormal tone
1.Hypotonic – low muscle tone 2.Spastic – increased resistance to passive movement 3 .Athetoid – slow writhing movements 4.Dystonic – persistent abnormal posture which increases with movement 5.Combination – abnormal tone with abnormal posture/movements
Classification of CP by extremity involvement
1.Monoplegia – only one extremity 2.Diplegia – two extremities, such as spastic diplegia which involves both legs 3.Hemiplegia – “half”-sided weakness, affecting arm and leg on one side of the body 4.Quadriplegia – all four limbs affected
CP associated disabilities
A. 1/3 of CP patients have epilepsy; in patients with hemiplegia, the incidence increases to 50% B. There is a higher chance of learning disabilities and problems with coordinated eye movements C. With quadriplegia, there is an increased chance of epilepsy and mental retardation