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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are five common cerebral cortex pathologies?
alzheimers, stroke, epilepsy, trauma, and tumor
what are the three phylogenetic divisions of the cerebral cortex and their characteristics?
archicortex (hippocampus-3 layers), paleocortex (olfactory cortex - 3 layers), and neocortex (rest of cortex, 6 layers)
what is the primary olfactory cortex also called?
the uncus
what two diseases impair olfaction early in the disease process?
alzheimer's and schizophrenia
what is meant by associational and commissural connections and what are the types of each?
associational are corticocortical fibers within the same hemisphere and include the superior longitudinal, arcuate, and uncinate fasciculi. Commissurl bundles are corticocortical projection that cross the hemispheres and include corpus callosum and anterior commissure
projection fibers (fibers that leave the cortex) make up what percentage of cortical fibers? Where do these fibers pass through in order to exit?
10%. internal capsule or medial forebrain bundle.
lesions of the ARAS result in what? In terms of the columns of the neurons in the brain, how is the ARAS organized?
coma, it diffuses to all the columns of the brain
what part of the thalamus projects to the sensory analyzer area of the cortex? motor analyzer?
pulvinar, DM, note that lesions of these thalamic nuclei look like lesions in the areas of the cortex they project too.
what are the major NT's of the cerebral cortex?
glutamate, aspartate, and GABA
what part of the brain is the intellectual part (sensory and motor analyzer)? the emotional part?
neocortical or lateral brain; limbic or medial brain
what are functions of the intellectual brain? the limbic brain?
cognitive function, self awareness, language, abstract thought, logic, long term adaptation; instinctive behavior, survival mechanisms, emotions, short term adaptation.
what are the functions of the left (dominant) hemisphere of the brain? right (non-dominant)?
language (in females this is shared between the two sides), motor organizations and performances, auditory analysis, analytical and rational, positive personality. spatial and temporal perception, visual analysis of external environment, self and others, musical , creativity, artistic, aggressive, emotional, negative personality, sense of humor
occlusion of what artery may result in alien hand syndrome?
anterior cerebral
when reading color text words, what side of the brain insists on saying the color of the text? saying the word written?
right, left
what is meant by primary, secondary, and tertiary zones?
primary is where perception occurs, secondary is where recognition occurs, and tertiary is where complex analysis occurs
a lesion to the postcentral gyrus would cause what? occipital cortex (primary zone)? transverse temporal gyrus?
contralateral kinesthesia and steroanesthesia, loss of contralateral visual field, partial loss of hearing.
define agnosia, apraxia, and aphasia. lesions to where would cause this?
inability to recognize, inabilty to perform a motor task. inability to either recognize or utilize signs and symbols of communication. in the association cortex, specefically visual-spatial and temporal agnosias and apraxias in the non dominant hemisphere and aphasia and motor apraxia in the dominant hemisphere.
lesion to the supramarginal gyrus would cause what? superior temporal gyrus?
tactile agnosia AKA asterogenesis. auditory agnosia.
what will a lesion to the superior temporal gyrus cause?
auditory agnosia
a lesion to the secondary zone of the NON DOMINANT occipital lobe will result in what?
visual agnosia
what will result in a lesion of the right occipital-parietal-temporal lobe border in the association cortex?
proposopagnosia (inability to recognize faces)
a lesion to the nondominant parietal association cortex will result in what (multiple symptoms)?
time space agnosia which includes spatial apraxia (can't dress oneself), constructional apraxia (can't copy a drawing), and dyscalculia (can't do arithmetic). Asomatognosia (body agnosia or loss of body image recognition, usually left side of body) which includes sensory extinction and neglect of the left side.
a lesion to the non dominant temporal association cortex will cause what?
uncoupling of visual and auditory association. memory deficits in visual-spatial data. impaired visual learning
the dominant hemisphere plays a major role in motor function and thus contains more what than the non-dominant hemisphere?
DA
a left parietal lobe lesion in the secondary and tertiary areas would cause what?
ideational apraxia (impaired ability to organize in the proper sequence) and ideomotor apraxia (impaired ability to transfer a plan of action into a motor response).
distinguish between expressive aphasia and receptive aphasia.
expressive is a decrease in speech and receptive is a decrease in comprehension and word memory
a lesion to the dominant inferior frontal cortex in the secondary and tertiary zones results in what?
motor aphasia AKA broca's. Non fluent word generation and the words are few and far between. Agraphia, writing impairment, also occurs.
a lesion to the dominant posterior-superior temporal gyrus and inferior supramarginal gyrus in the secondary and tertiary areas will cause what?
auditory aphasia AKA Wernicke's which is inability to understand spoken words; they have fluent speech, but it does not make any sense AKA word salad.
a lesion to the dominant parieto temporal area will cause what?
visual aphasia, they cannot read. dyslexia is an inherited deficit in the left temporal cortex
what connects wernicke's receptive speech area with broca's expressive motor speech area? what happens if there is a lesion to this?
the arcuate fasciculus. Conduction aphasia will occur when broca's and wernicke's are uncoupled thus pt.s cannot repeat or read aloud
when does global aphasia occur?
occlusion of left middle cerebral artery and/or dementia
lesion to the non-dominant side's language centers results in what?
motor aprosody (monotone speech, inability to incorporate emotion into language) and sensory aprosody (inability to comprehend the emotional import of speech)
an occlusion to the right middlecerebral artery would cause what?
-Left spastic hemiplegia
-Left hemianesthesia
-Left homonomous hemianopsia
-Left neglect & Body Agnosia
-Constructional Apraxia
-Time-Space Agnosia
-Deviation of both eyes to Right
-Left Athetosis, chorea, etc?
-Mood/Personality/Prosody?
an occlusion to the left middle cerebral artery would cause what?
-Right spastic hemiplegia
-Right hemianesthesia
-Right homonomous hemianopsia
-Ideational/Ideomotor Apraxia
-Global Aphasia
-Deviation of both eyes to Left
-Right Athetosis, chorea, etc?
-Mood/Personality ?