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80 Cards in this Set

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Nervous System
Moniters the internal and external environments, integrates sensory information, and coordinates voluntary and involuntary responses of many other organ systems
The Central Nervous System (CNS)
(Consists of the brain and the spinal cord)Integrates and coordinates the processing of sensory data and the transmission of motor commands
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Where all communication between the CNS and the rest of the body occurs. This includes all of the neural tissue outside of the CNS.
Afferent Division
Where sensory information outside of the nervous system is detected- by things called receptors. From here, they are carried to sites in the CNS, where information is processed.
Effert Division
The CNS sends motor commands here (after the Afferent Division) by these means of the PNS to muscles, glands, and adipose tissue, which are called effectors.
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
One of the two subsivisions of the Efferent Division which provides control over skeletal muscle contractions
Autonomatic Nervous System (ANS)
aka Visceral Motor System
One of the two sub-divisions of the Effernt Division that provides automatic involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glandular division, and adipose tissue.
Sympathetic Division
Speeds up heart
Parasympathetic Division
Slows heart down
Neurons
The basic units of the nervous system. All neural functions involve the communication of neurons with one another and with the other cells
Neuroglia
Regulates the environment around the neurons, provides a supporting framework from neural tissue, and act as phagocytes. Although they are much smaller than neurglia, the ygreatly outnumber neurons. Unlike neurons, most glial cells retail the ability to divide.
Dendrites
Along with a cell body, these are part of a "represntative" neuron. Its job is to recieve incoming signals.
axon
Another part of a "representative neuron", an axons job is to carry outgoing signals toward one or more synaptic terminals.
Synaptic terminals
The little feelers on the end of a Represnentative neuron. This is where the neuron communicates with other cells.
Nissel Bodies
Clusters of rough ER and free ribosomes that give a gray color ro areas containing neuron cell bodies and account for the gray color in brain and spinal cord dissections.
Synapse
Where nuerons communicate with another cell. A synaptic terminal is part of this body.
Multi-polar Neurons
The most common type of neuron in the CNS that has two or more dendrites and a single neuron.All of the motor neurons that contain skeletal muscles are multipolar.
Unipolar Neurons
In this type of neuron, the dentrites and axon are continuous and the cell body lies off to one side. In unipolar neuron, the action potential begins at the base of the dentrites, and the rest of the process is considered an axon. Most sensory neurons of the PNS are unipolar.
Bipolar Neurons
This type of neurons has two processes- one dentrite and one axon- with the cell body between them. These type of neurons are rare but appear in special sensse organs, wher they relay info about sight, smell, or hearing from receptor cells to other neurons.
Name the three functional groups of Neurons.
1) sensory neurons
2) motor neurons
3) interneurons
Sensory Neurons
There are approximately 10 million of these in the human body that form an afferent division of the PNS. The neurons recieve information from sensory receptors thah moniter the external and internal environments and then relay the infornmation to other neurons in the CNS (spinal cord and brain). The sensor may be a dendrite of a sensory neuron or specialized cells of other organs that communicate with the sensory neuron.
Somatic Sensory Receptors
There are two types of these that detect information about the outside world or our physical position within it.
External sensors
these are one of the two branches of the Somatic Sensory Receptors that provides information about the external environmentin the form of touch, temperature, and pressure sensations, and the more complex senses of sight, smell, hearing, and touch
Protrioceptors
One of the two branches of the Somatic Sensory Receptors that monitors the position of skeletal muscles and joints
Visceral Receptors/Internal Receptors
These receptors monitor the activities of the digestive, respitatory, cariovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems and provide sensations of taste, deep pressure, and pain.
Motor Neurons
There are half a million of these in the efferent division that carry instructions from the CNS to other tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Peripheral targets
These are effectors because they respond by doing something.
Somatic Motor Neurons
One of the classes of the effectors within the classification of motor neuron, that innervates skeletal muscles
Visceral Motor Neurons
One of the classes with the motor neurons that innervates all other effectors, including cardiac, smooth muscle, glands, and adipose tissue
Interneurons/Association neurons
There are nearly 20 billion of these in the human body. They are located entirely within the body and the spinal cord. Their job is to connect other neurons. They are responsible for the distribution of sensory information and the coordination of motor activity.
Name the four types of neuroglia
1) Ependymal Cells
2) Oligodendrocyte
3) Astrocyte
4) Microglial
Astrocytes
These are the largest and most numerous type of neuroglia. They secrete chemicals vital to the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, which isolates the CNS from the general circulation. The chemical secretions cause the capillaries of the CNS to become impermeable to many compounds that could interfer with neuron function. They also create a structural framework for CNS neurons and preform repairs in damaged neural tissue.
Oligodendrocytes
These neuroglia have fewer processes than astrocytes. Their thin expanding tips wrap around axons, creating a membraeous sheath of insulation made of myelin. Each oligodendrocyte myelinates short segments of several axons, therefore many oligodendrocytes are needed to coat an entire axon with myelin.
Myelin
A mebraneous sheath of insulation that wraps around axons. What a oligodendrocyte consists of.
Myelinated
The process during which axons are covered with oligodendrocytes that is the n covered with a sheet of myelin.
Unmyelinated
What a axon without the oligodendrocyte is called. Not all axons in CNS are myelinated, and those that aren't are called these.
White matter
Areas that consist of axons that consist of myelinated axons.
Gray matter
Areas that are dominated by neuron cell bodies.
Microglia
The smallest and rarest of the neuroglia in the Cns. These are phagocytic cells that derived from white blood cells that migrate into the CNS as the nervous system formed. They preform potective functions such as engulfing cellular waste and pathogens.
Ependymal cells
These cells line both the cental canal of the spinal cord and the chambers (ventricles) of the brain, which are both cavities in the CNS that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Ependyma
This lining of epithelial cells. In some regions of the brain the epithelial produces CSF and cilia on ependymal cells in other locations help circulate the fluid in and around the CNS.
Name the 2 tpes of neuroglia in the PNS.
1) Satellite cells
2) Schwann Cells
Satellite Cells
One of the cell types in nueroglia in PNS. They surround and support neuron cell bodies in the PNS, much as astrocytes do in the PNS.
Schwann cells
One of the two glia cells in the PNS. They cover every axon outside the CNS. The Scwann cell can myelinate only a portion of a single axon. However, a Schwann cell can myelinate portions of many different unmyelinated axons.
neurilemma
the outer surface of the schwann cell
Anatomical Organization of nerves in PNS:
Neuron cell bodies (gray matter) are located in the gray matter.

The white matter in PNS contain axons bundled together in NERVES

SPINAL NERVES are connected to the spinal cord

CRANIAL NERVES are connected to the brain.

Both sensory and motor axons may be present at the same nerve.
Anatomical Organization of nerves in CNS:
A collection of nerves with a common function is called a CENTER. A center with a discrete boundary is called a NUCLEUS. Portions of the brain surface are covered by a thick layer of gray matter called NEURAL CORTEX. The term HIGHER CENTER refers to the most complex integration centers, nuclei, and cortical areas in the brain.

The white matter of the CNS contains bundles of axons that share common origins , destinations, and functions. These bundles are called TRACTS. Tracts in the spinal cord form larger groups called COLUMNS.

PATHWAYS link the centers of the brain with the rest of the body. Ex: sensory pathways distribute sensory info from sensory receptors to processing centers in the brain.
Membrane potential/Transmembrane potential
When charges are separated by a membrane, this potential change is called this
Polarized
living
Resting Potential
The membrane potential of an undisturbed cell. (the resting potential for a neuron is -70 mV)
leak channels
A type of membrane channel that is always open
gated channels
A membrane that opens and closes under specific circumstances, such as a change in voltage
depolarization
As the number of positively charged ions on the inner surface of the cell membrane increases, the membrane potential shifts toward 0 mV. A shift in this direction is called his.
hyperpolarization
A stimulus that opens gated potassium ion channels away from O mV, because additional potassium ions will leave the cell. Such a change, which may take the membrane potential from - 70 mV to -80 mV is called this.
Grated potentials
Changes in the membrane potential that cannot spread far from the sight of stimulation, thereby affecting only a limited portion of the cell membrane.
Action potential
A propogated change in the membrane potential of the entire cell membrane.
Threshold
An action potential will not appear unless a membrane depolarizes sufficiently to a level known as this.
All-or-Not Principle
A given stimulus either triggers a typical action potential or it does not produce one at all. Every stimulus whether minor or extreme that brings the membrane to threshold will generate an identical action potential. This is what this is.
Refractory Period
From the moment the voltage-regulated sodium channels open at threshold until repolarization is complete, the membrane cannot respond normally to further stimulation
Continuous Propagation
The process that continues in a chain reaction that soon reaches the most distant portions of the cell membrane. This is a form of the action potential transmission.
Saltatory Propagation
As a result of the myelination of an axon continuous propogation cannot occur. Instead, when an action potential occurs at the axon hillock, the local current skips the internode and depolarizes the closest node to threshold. Thus, action potential jumps from node to node rather than proceeding in a series of small steps.
Neurotransmitters
The information transfer occurs through the release of chemicals that are called this from the synaptic terminal.
Neuroeffector Junctions
Synapses between a neuron and another cell type
Neuromuscular Junction
A neuron communicates with a muscle here.
Neuroglandular Junction
Where a neuron controls and regulates the activity of secretory cell.
Synaptic Knob
Where the impulse passes at a synapse between two neurons
Presynaptic Neuron
One of the neurons that passes the impulse
Postsynaptic Neuron
One of the neurons that passes the impulse
Synaptic Cleft
The narrow space that separates opposing cell membranes
Acetylcholine (ACh)
One of the neurotransmitters
Cholinelinergic synapses
One of the two neurotransmitters. They are widespread inside and outside the CNS, one example is the neuromuscular joint
Norepinephrine/ NE
A common neurotransmitter that is important in the brain and in portions of the autonamicnervous system.
Noradrenaline
Another name for Norepinephrine/NE
Dopamine, Gamma Aminobutyric acid aka Gaba, and Serotinon
Neurotranmitters in the CNS
Nitric Acid/ NO and Carbon Dioxide/ CO
Two gasses that are know to be important neurotransmitters
Neuronal Pool
A group of interconnected interneurals with specific functions
Divergence
One pattern of neural patterns wher information is spread from one neuron to several neurons, or from one neural pool to multiple neural pools
Convergence
During this process, several neurons synapse on a single post synaptic neuron. Convergence make possible both volutary and involutary bodily processes. For ex: right now, the movement of your diaphram and ribs are being involuntarily, or subconsiously, controlled by respitory centers in the brain.
Spinal reflexes
Automatic motor responses ranging from withdrawl from pain to complex reflex patterns involved in sitting, standing, walking, and running.
Cervical enlargement
Supplies nerves to the shoulder girdles and upper limbs