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29 Cards in this Set

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Which arteries are the main blood flow to the brain? What is the network of blood vessels on the inferior surface of the brain called?
R & L Common Carotids and Vertebral Arteries

Circle of Willis
In what main veins does blood flow away from the brain?
R & L Internal jugular (from brain tissue)and External Jugular veins (from meninges & skull)
What is the fxn of the BBB?
Protect neurons from harmful substances in blood; neurons cannot undergo mitosis
What is included in the structure of the BBB?
> Continuous capillary (no gaps btwn cells)
>Intact basement membrane (no gaps
>Astrocyte-neuroglia; extentions that sit on capillary wall which helps regulate what enters & exits
What are the functions of the spinal cord?
>Relay impulses therought ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) projection tracts
>Integrating center for reflexes
The spinal cord extends from the ______________ to vertebrae ____.
foramen magnum; L1
How many segments does the spinal cord develop into?
31
The cervical enlargement is located between which vertebrae? The lumbar enlargement is located between which vertebrae?
Cervical C4-T1 (supports upper extremities)
Lumbar T9-T12 (supports lower extremities)
What is the tapering cone shaped end of the spinal cord called?
Conus Medullaris
The two anterior gray horns contain____ neurons. The posterior horns contain _____ neurons. The lateral horns contain _______ neurons.
Anterior-Motor
Posterior- Sensory
Lateral- Autonomic, both motor and sensory
Name 2 of the descending tracts in the spinal cord and their fxns.
>Corticospinal-Voluntary Movement

>Extra Pyramidal-Posture, balance, coordination
Name 3 of the ascending tracts in the spinal cord and their fxns.
>Spinothalamic-touch, pressure, pain, itch, tickle

>Spinocerebellar-proprioception necessary for balance, posture, coordination

>Medial Lemniscus-touch, temp, vibrations, pressure
What is the fxn of the pituitary gland?
Secretes hormones for a variety of body activities.
What is the fxn of the optic nerve?
Sensory nerve, axons of ganglion cells of retina form nerve
What is the fxn of the superior colliculus?
Reflex center for certain visual stimuli
What is the fxn of the inferior colliculus?
Relay impulses from receptors for hearing in ear to thalamus
What is the fxn of the cornea?
Focus light onto retina
What is the fxn of the iris?
Regulate amount of light entering eye through pupil
What is the fxn of the conjunctiva?
Mucous membrane protects cornea
What is the fxn of the aqueous humor?
Watery fluid nourishes lens & cornea
What is the fxn of the vitreous body?
Hold retina flush against choroid, even surface for retina for clear image reception
What is the fxn of the retina?
Beginning of visual pathway; receives light & converts to receptor potential & nerve impulses output to brain forms optic nerve
What is the fxn of the tympanic membrane?
Sound waves cause vibration, cause malleus to vibrate
What is the fxn of the ossicles? What are the ossicles?
Transmit & amplify vibrations

Malleus, incus, stapes
What is the fxn of the oval window?
opening for stapes
What is the fxn of the round window?
Opening between middle and internal ear, covered by secondary tympanic membrane
What is the fxn of the cochlear ducts?
Transmit vibration to spiral organ (organ of hearing)
What is the fxn of the semicircular ducts?
Site of hair cells for dynamic equilibrium
What is the fxn of the utricle and saccule? Where are they located?
Site of hair cells for static & dynamic equilibrium.

Vestibule