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101 Cards in this Set

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What time frame (millenium) is associated with proto-Indo-European?
c. 4000 BCE
About what time period (century) is associated with the emergence of common Celtic?
c. 1400 BCE
Who led the first Roman invasion of Britain, and when was this invasion?
Julius Caesar, c. 54/55 BCE
Who led the most effective Roman invasion of Britain, and when was it?
Claudius, c. 45 AD
When (century) did the Roman occupation of Britain end?
5th Century AD
What is the Welsh name for "Welshmen," and what is the supposed etymology?
cymru/cymry, suggested to be derived from "men of the same country"
In what year was the Battle of Hastings?
1066 CE
What are the three divisions of Celtic Britain?
The Old North
Wales
Cornwall
What is the Welsh name for the Old North?
Y Gogledd
When did the Saxons begin to have control of the Island?
Around the 5th C. CE, though didn't really become dominant until 7th C.
When (century) did early Welsh emerge?
c. 5th-6th century CE
What is the indicator of the emergence of Welsh?
Aneirin's "Y Gododdin" is composed in Welsh, which would imply that by the time of its composition Welsh is the dominant language.
When was the battle of Catraeth and why is it significant?
c. 570 AD, a battle between Urien of Rheged (representative of the Coelling collaterals of the Kynvyrching dynasty) and the men of the Gododdin (a unified band of Celts and Picts representing the Kynwydon dynasty). This battle was the original subject of Y Gododdin.
What are the three divisions of heroic-age poets?
pencerdd
bardd teulu
cerddor
What is the pencerdd?
The "chief of songs," the pencerdd is the highest of the cynfeirdd
Define: cynfeirdd
The "old poets" = the poets of the heroic age
Define: bardd teulu
The middle-ranked of the cynfeirdd, the house-bound bard
What time period is associated with Old Welsh?
9th-11th centuries CE
What time period is associated with Medieval Welsh?
12th-14th centuries CE
What time period is associated with the development of Modern Welsh?
14th century CE
What was the language of King Arthur?
Brittonic
Define: cerddor
The lowest of the three ranks of the cynfeirdd: the "minstrel"
Define: Gogynfeirdd
The "rather early poets" or the "poets of the princes" are the poets associated with the medieval Welsh tradition.
Define: Cywyddweir
The "men of the cywydd" or the "poets of the noblemen" are the poets of the modern Welsh tradition (associated with the cywydd meter).
Who was Dafydd ap Gwelyn?
The modern Welsh poet associated with the development of the cywydd meter.
Define: Brut Y Brenhinedd
"The History of the Kings of Britain" = the Welsh translation (with artistic liberties) of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britonnia, with over 60 surviving copies. Important because it's essentially the Welsh myth of their history.
What is the historical scope of (i.e. what time period is covered by) Brut y Brenhinedd?
From the Fall of Troy c. 1240 BCE to the end of the reign of Cadwaladr c. 689 CE
Define: Dares Phrygius (Welsh tradition)
A prequel to the Brut Y Brenhinedd written by scholars (who are not Geoffrey), the first part of a trilogy of Bruts.
Define: Brut Y Tywysogion
The last part of the trilogy of Bruts, the History of the Princes picks up where Brut Y Brenhinedd leaves off and ends with the death of Llwelyn ap Gruffudd in 1282.
Define: Mynnyddawg Mwynfawr
The fictional leader of the Cymry against the Saxon hordes at Catraeth in the canu Aneirin. Introduced to the test of Y Gododdin in the A text, c. 10th century CE
Who was the (fictional) leader of the Cymry against the Saxons in the canu Aneirin and where was his court?
Mynnyddawg Mwynfawr of Edinburgh
From what century does the surviving manuscript of the canu Aneirin date?
13th
How many soldiers of the cymru fought at Catraeth?
Either 300 or ~ 363, depending on what version you consult
Where is the manuscript of Y Gododdin currently held?
The Cardiff Central Library
Rank the texts of the canu Aneirin from most to least archaic
B2, B1, A
Which texts of the Gododdin descend from the Strathclyde recession?
B1, A
What differentiates the texts of the Gododdin that descend from the Strathclyde recession?
That in these, as opposed to the B2 text, the enemy is the Saxons.
What new enemy is gained in the A text of the Gododdin, and why didn't they appear in the B texts?
The Bernicians, who were friendly with the cymru at least through the 7th Century.
Define: Urien of Rheged
Lord of Rheged, Erechwydd, and Llwyfenydd and the defender of the Caeling collaterals of the Kynvarching Dynasty
Why is Nennius significant for our study of Arthur?
Possibly the first to mention Arthur by name (9th C.)
Why is Y Gododdin important for our study of Arthur?
The first mention of Arthur in the vernacular (a brief mention, a comparison in one of the elegies) in the early 7th century
Define: cenedl
Kinship tribe, the organizing unit of the British clientship system
Define: pencenedl
The "head of the cenedl" = the (male) leader of the kinship group
Define: teulu
Warband organized by a pencenedl to protect his tribe and composed of members of a collection of cenedls (who theoretically are considered part of the cenedl for the duration of their time in the teulu)
Define: penteulu
Head of the teulu = leader of the warband
Define: Battle of Lindesfarne
592 CE: Urien of Rheged leads united Celts to victory over the Saxons then killed shortly after by the treachery of Morcant.
Define: Morcant
Powerful Celtic leader in the Gogledd, by treason responsible for the death of Urien of Rheged after the Battle of Lindesfarne in 592.
Define: Hadrian's wall
First wall built by the Romans (c. 122 CE) to keep out the Picts. Crosses from Solway to Eastern coast.
Define: Antonine Wall
Second wall built by the Romans (c. 142) to keep out the Picts. Reaches from the Firth of Forth on the East to the Western Coast.
Define: cyfarwydd
Prophet/seer (a la Myrddin)
Define: cyfarwyddyd
Traditional lore, as remembered and passed along by the poets and bards
Define: Gwion Bach
The little boy who would be Taliesin. Story involves a witch whose son is ugly, a potion of incredible intelligence, and Taliesin sneaking a sip...then a shape-shifting chase, a second birth, being thrown into the ocean and found by Elphin.
Define: Cyrridwen
The witch responsible for brewing the potion that gave the mythical Taliesin his knowledge.
Define: Afagddu
The hideous son of the witch Cyrriden, the boy for whom the intelligence potion (consumed by the mythical Taliesin precursor = Gwion Bach) was intended.
Define: Spoils of the Otherworld
A (mythical) Taliesin poem about Arthur's quest to get a cauldron of regeneration and an epic battle with only seven survivors.
Define: Prydwen
"Bright face" = Arthur's ship (called his shield by Geoffrey).
Define: Red Book of Hergest
c. 1375, One of the manuscripts of Llywarch Hen's poetry
Define: White Book of Ryddach
c. 1300, One of the manuscripts of Llywarch Hen's poetry
Define: Black Book of Carmarthen
c. 1250, One of the manuscripts of Llywarch Hen's poetry
What are the surviving manuscripts of Llywarch Hen poetry and from when does each date?
Black Book of Carmarthen (c. 1250)
White Book of Ryddach (c. 1300)
Red Book of Hergest (c. 1375)
Define: Merfyn frych
Rising to power c. 830 CE: "Freckled" Merfyn, King of Gwenydd breaks a 400-year father-to-son inheritance of the kingdom, so claims to descend from Llywarch Hen to establish legitimacy (based on Urien)
Define: Gildas
Author of De Excidio Brittainiae (of the Ruin of Britain), a pessimistic monk-historian; the first to mention an Aruthurian figure in Ambrosius Aurelianus
Define: Emrys Wledig
Welsh translation of Ambrosius Aurelianus
Define: Ambrosius Aurelianus
Gildas' Arthurian figure, appears in his De Excidio Brittainniae c. 540 CE
Define: Badon Hill
Site of Arthur's great victory (c.518) over the Saxons, mentioned in Gildas' De Excidio Britainniae
Define: Gwenddolau
Myrddin's lord in the battle of Arfderydd (c. 573 CE against the sons of Elifer or Rhydderch Hael) whose death caused Myrddin to go insane
Define: Rhydderch Hael
King of Strathclyde; Gwenddolau's opponent at the battle of Arfderydd (c. 573 CE)
Define: Gwyddeydd
Myrddin's sister (and/or mistress)
Define: Dinogad
The coward of the Battle of Arfderydd (c. 573 CE)
Define: Saga Theory
Ifor Williams' contention that the Llywarch Hen poetry is what remains of a prose story (with the poetry written down for the benefit of the reciters)
Define: Battle of Brunanburh
937 CE: Saxon victory over the united Celts (Dublin Danes, Scots, and Men of Strathclyde -- the Welsh, Cornish, and Bretons didn't come)
Coelling collaterals
A division of the Kynvyrching Dynasty of which Urien of Rheged (Lord of Catraeth at the time of the battle in Y Gododdin) was part.
Kynvyrching Dynasty
The Welsh kingship with which Urien of Rheged was aligned (important because was one of the sides represented in John Koch's interpretation of the Gododdin battle of Catraeth B2 text)
Kynwydon Dynasty
The Welsh kingship represented by the attackers (united Picts and Celts) in the battle of Catraeth c. 570 according to John Koch's interpretation of the B2 text of Y Gododdin.
Who were the Saxon Kings that Urien fought during his lifetime and in what time periods did he fight them?
Theodoric (572-579 CE)
Hussa (585-592 CE)
Define: Theodoric
Saxon King, one of two major Saxon leaders who fought against Urien of Rheged. Time of conflict with Urien: 572-579 CE.
Define: Hussa
Saxon king, one of the major opponents of Urien of Rheged. Time of conflict with Urien: 585-592 CE.
In what year did the Saxons convert to Christianity?
597 CE
What is the name of the person who murdered Urien of Rheged?
Llofan "of the severing hand"
Define: Cunedda
King of Gwynedd whose line (which includes Arthur) ruled for 4 centuries before being interrupted by Merfin Vrych.
Define: awen
Welsh term meaning "poetic inspiration." Important concerning the archetypal poet.
Define: the archetypal poet
A poet figure to whom much prophetic work is attributed. Generally associated with supernatural capabilities. One who is considered all-seeing and all-knowing and whose prophesies are true. Tends to have lived in many time periods (all time periods).
Define: Ellis Gruffydd
16th century -- Wrote Chronicle in which Myrddin-Taliesin-Ambrosius figure discussed.

First as Ambrosius prophseeing before Vortigern (5th C.)
Next as Taliesin in the time of Arthur (6th C.)
Next (9th C.) as Myrddin gwyllt (=Myrddin the mad) in the time of Merfin Vrych
What are the analogs to Myrddin in the Old North,Scotland, and Ireland
Llallogan, Lailoken, and Suibney geillt respectively
Which centuries are marked by a heavy immigration to Breton?
The 6th and 9th centuries
Define: Cynan Meriadoc
6th Century King of Brittany, prophesized to come back with Cadwalladr to return Britain to the Celts and rule until Judgement Day
Define: Cadwalladr
7th Century King of Gwynedd, prophesized to come back, bringing Cynan Meriadoc, from the Otherworld to return Britain to the Celts and rule until Judgement Day
Define: Athelstan
Aggressive 10th century Saxon Monarch who was working to conquer and control all of Britain. The opponent of the united Celts (Dublin Danes, Men of Strathclyde, Scots) at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937 CE
Who fought in the united coalition of Celts in the battle of Brunanburh?
The Dublin Danes, the men of Strathclyde, and the Scots
Who was the opponent of the Celts at the Battle of Brunanburh?
The Saxons under their king, Athelstan
What were the three oppressions discussed in the myths of Lludd and Llofelys and what do they each represent?
The Coroniad = The Romans (under Caesar)

The Scream = the dragons = the Saxons

The Magician = the Picts (raiding and pillaging)
Define: Geoffrey Geimar
Contemporary of Geoffrey of Monmouth whose History of the English (c. 1135) corroborates the existence of the "liber vetustissimus" that Geoffrey of Monmouth cites in his Historia.
What are the three central myths in the Historia Regum Britonniae?
1) The unity of Britain (with a single crown at London)

2) The loss of Celtic sovereignty (as illustrated through the relationship between Wales and Rome)

3) The prophecy of the regaining of British hegemony (omitted in the Brut Y Brenhineidd)
Define: Gildas
6th century British monk, possibly associated with Arthur, first to write about an Arthurian figure in prose in his De Excidio Britainniae.
Define: "liber vetustissimus"
The "very ancient book" that Geoffrey of Monmouth refers to as his primary source in his Historia. Likely a collection of Welsh cyfarwyddyd.
Who are Lloeg and Lleminog?
Men of Arthur's court who, according to the mythical Taliesin in "Spoils of the Otherworld" retrieve the cauldron of regeneration (which will not cook for cowads) for Arthur in the disastrous adventure.
Define: Gwasawg
Some figure represented as a supporter of Rhydderch (in the poetry, the opponent of Gwenddolau at Arfderydd) and therefore as an enemy of Myrddin.
Define: mechteyrn
Term in Armes Prydein (c. 930) meaning "Great King" or "overlord," probably used in reference to Athelstan, the Saxon King of England
Who were the original leaders of the Saxons in Britain?
Hengist and Horsa
Define: Hengist and Horsa
The original leaders of the Saxon invasion of Britain
Define: Walter of Oxford
Archdeacon of Oxford and keeper of the "liber vetustissimus"