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35 Cards in this Set

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at the end of glycolysis, how much of the chemical energy in glucose is still unused?
90%
because the final stages of cellar respiration require oxygen, they are said to be ____
aerobic
in the presence of oxygen, how is the pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis used?
passed to the second stage of the cellular respiration, the Krebs cycle
what happens to pyruvic acid during the Krebs cycle?
broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of enery-extracting reactions
why is the Krebs cycle aka the citric acid cycle?
citric acid is the first compound formed
when does the Krebs cycle begin?
when pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis enters the mitochondrion
what happens to each of the 3 carbon atoms in pyruvic acid when it's broken?
one becomes a part of a molecule of carbon dioxide, and two are joined to a coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA
what happens to the carbon dioxide produced in breaking down pyruvic acid?
eventually released to the air
how is citric acid produced?
Acetyl-CoA adds the 2-carbon Acetyl group to a 4-carbon molecule
during the energy extraction part of the Krebs cycle, how many molecules of CO2 are released?
three
what is the energy tally from 1 molecule of pyruvic acid during the krebs cycle?
4 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP
when electrons join NAD+ and FAD during the Krebs cycle, what do they form?
NADH and FADH2
why is the 4-carbon compound generated in the breakdown of citric acid the only permanent compound in the Krebs cycle?
it can accept another 2-carbon acetyl group and start the cycle all over again
what is the electron transport chain?
process that uses high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP to ATP
what does the electron transport chain use the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle for?
to convert ADP into ATP
how does the location of the electron transport chain differ in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
eukaryotes: inner membrane of mitochondrion
prokaryotes: cell membrane
where does the electron transport chain get the high-energy electrons that are passed down the chain?
from NADH and FADH2
T or F:
hydrogen serves as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. if F, why so?
F-oxygen is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain
what is the energy of the high-energy electrons used for every time 2 high-energy electrons move down the electron trnasport chain?
transport H+ across the membrane
what causes the H+ ions in the intermembrane space to move through the channels in the membrane and out into the matrix?
ATP synthases that spins. as it spins, it grabs a low-energy ADP and attaches a phosphate, forming high-energy ATp
on average, how many ATP molecules are produced as each pair of high-energy electrons moves down the electron transport chain?
three
high-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed into and along the ____ ____ ____
electron transport chain
the energy from the electrons moving down the chain is used to move H+ ions across the ____ ____
inner membrane
H+ ions build up in the ____ space, making it ____ charged and making
intermembrane, positively
H+ ions move through channels of ____ ____ in the inner membrane
ATP synthases
the ATP synthase uses the energy from the moving ions to combine ADP and phosphate, forming high-energy ____
ATP
what is the total number of ATp molecules formed during cellular respiration?
36
why can 18 times as much ATp be generated from glucose in the presense of oxygen than when oxygen isn't available?
absence of oxygen -- glycolysis only produce 2.
oxygen's presence -- Krebs cycle and electron transport chain produces 34 more ATp more glucose molecule in addition to 2 ATp from glycolysis
what happens to the 62% of the total energy of glucose that isn't used to make ATP molecules?
released as heat
what are the final waste products of cellular respiration?
water and carbon dioxide
what are the three sources of ATP a human body uses at the beginning of a race?
msucles
lactic acid fermentation
cellular respiration
when a runner needs quick energy for a short race, what source can supply enough ATp for about 90 seconds? muscles for a few seconds, then the lactic acid fermentation
muscles for a few seconds, then the lactic acid fermentation
why does a sprinter have an oxygen debt to repay after the race is over?
get rid of lactic acid with extra oxygen
a runner needs more energy for a longer race. how does the body generate the necessary ATP?
cellular respiration
why are aerobic forms of exercise so beneficial for weight control?
after 15020 mins of activity, body begins to break down other stored molecules, including fats, for energy