Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/19

Click to flip

19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acetyl CoA
the entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
Aerobic
containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen
Alcohol Fermentation
a two-step process in which pyruvate is converted to ethanol; step one releases carbon dioxide from the pyruvate, which is converted to the two-carbon compound acetaldehyde; step two, acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to ethanol
Anaerobic
lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it
ATP Synthase
a cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondria cristae (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen-ion concentration gradient to make ATP; provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitochondrion
Cellular Respiration
the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
Chemiosmosis
the production of ATP using the energy of hydrogen-ion gradients across membranes to phosphorylate ADP; powers most ATP synthesis in cells
Electron Transport Chain
a sequence of electron-carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy to make ATP
Facultative Anaerobe
an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present by that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions
Fermentation
a catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end-product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid
Glycolysis
the splitting of glucose into pyruvate; occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration
Krebs Cycle
a chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose moelcules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration
Lactic Acid Fermentation
the process in which pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as a waste product, with no release of carbon dioxide
NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions fo metabolism
Oxidative
the loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction
Oxidative Phosphorylation
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
Redox Reaction
a chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to one another
Reduction
the gaining of electrons by a substance involved in a redox reaction
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
the formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism