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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
The processes by which cells convert energy in the chemical bonds of nutrients to ATP energy.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways
Precursor metabolites are intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
Energy-requiring reactions in which chemical compounds are synthesized.
ANABOLISM
Requires molecular oxygen.
AEROBIC
Name two anaerobic exergonic forms of cellular respiration.
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation do not require oxygen
To grow, function, and reproduce, cells must:
1) synthesize new cellular components such as cell walls, cell membranes, nucleic acids, ribosomes, proteins, flagella, etc., and;
2) harvest energy and convert it into a form that is usable to do cellular work.
The endergonic process that uses the energy stored in ATP to synthesize the building blocks of the macromolecules that make up the cell.
Anabolism
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
Energy-requiring reactions in which chemical compounds are
synthesized.
ANABOLISM
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Name an exergonic pathway that requires molecular oxygen (O2).
Aerobic Respiration: Aerobic respiration is an exergonic pathway
that requires molecular oxygen (O2).
Name two anaerobic exergonic forms of cellular respiration.
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation do not require oxygen
Name two anaerobic exergonic forms of cellular respiration.
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation do not require oxygen
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Name an exergonic pathway that requires molecular oxygen (O2).
Aerobic Respiration: Aerobic respiration is an exergonic pathway that requires molecular oxygen (O2).
the form of energy required to do cellular work.
ATP
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
Energy-requiring reactions in which chemical compounds are
synthesized.
ANABOLISM
Energy-requiring reactions in which chemical compounds are
synthesized.
ANABOLISM
Name an exergonic pathway that requires molecular oxygen (O2).
Aerobic Respiration: Aerobic respiration is an exergonic pathway
that requires molecular oxygen (O2).
Name an exergonic pathway that requires molecular oxygen (O2).
Aerobic Respiration: Aerobic respiration is an exergonic pathway
that requires molecular oxygen (O2).
Name two anaerobic exergonic forms of cellular respiration.
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation do not require oxygen
Name two anaerobic exergonic forms of cellular respiration.
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation do not require oxygen
Reactions in which energy is harvested as chemical
compounds are broken down.
CATABOLISM
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Intermediate molecules in catabolic and anabolic pathways that can
be oxidized to generate ATP or synthesize subunits of
macromolecules
PRECURSOR METABOLITES
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anaerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic
Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be:
Anerobic Anerobic reactions do not require oxygen.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
Precursor metabolites can do two important things:
Precursor metabolites can be either oxidized to generate ATP or can
be used to synthesize macromolecular subunits such as amino acids,
lipids, and nucleotides.
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reaction
that releases energy.
EXERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
A chemical reactions that requires energy.
ENDERGONIC REACTION
If you isolate mitochondria and place them in buffer with a low pH they begin to manufacture ATP. Why?

A. Low pH increases the concentration of base causing mitochondria to pump out H+ to the inter membrane space leading to ATP production.
B. The high external acid concentration causes an increase in H+ in the inter membrane space leading to increased ATP production by ATP synthetase.
C. Low pH increases the acid concentration in the mitochondrial matrix, a condition that normally causes ATP production.
D. Low pH increases the OH- concentration in the matrix resulting in ATP production by ATP synthetase.
B. The high external acid concentration causes an increase in H+ in the inter membrane space leading to increased ATP production by ATP synthetase.

Mitochondrial production of ATP requires a concentration gradient of H+, with a high concentration at the inter membrane space and a low concentration in the matrix. The inner membrane is impermeable to H+, but the outer membrane of the mitochondria will allow H+ to pass through. Thus, placing mitochondria in a low pH buffer produces a H+ gradient that can generate ATP through ATP synthetase
Glycolysis leads to the production of ____________ and two molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, fermentation leads to the production of ______________. Glycolysis plus the citric acid cycle can convert the carbons of glucose to _________ , storing the energy as ATP, _____________ and ___________.
A. lactic acid, pyruvate, CO2, NADH, FADH2
B. pyruvate, lactic acid, CO2, NADH, FADH2
C. CO2, NADH, FADH2, lactic acid, pyruvate
D. O2, lactic acid, pyruvate, FADH2
E. glucose, lactic acid, CO2, NADH, FADH2
B. pyruvate, lactic acid, CO2, NADH, FADH2
In glycolysis, glucose with six carbons is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, each with three carbons. In fermentation, pyruvate is reduced by NAD+ producing lactic acid. In the citric acid cycle, the carbons of glucose are converted to CO2 and the H atoms used to reduce NAD+ and FAD forming NADH and FADH2.
At the end of glycolysis, each molecule of glucose has yielded 2 molecules of _______, 2 molecules of ________, and a net of 2 molecules of _________.

A. FAD; NAD+; ADP
B. CO2; NAD+; ADP
C. lactic acid; ethanol; CO2
D. pyruvate; NADH; ATP
E. H2O; CO2; ATP
D. pyruvate; NADH; ATP
Glycolysis is the conversion of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate, yielding a net 2 ATP and 2 NADH. Recall that 2 ATP were needed to initiate glycolysis and 4 ATP were produced in the pathway, for a net gain of 2 ATP.