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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a mitochondrian?
Cell organelle involved in respiration
What is cytoplasm?
Fluid surrounding the contents of a cell
What is a golgi apparatus
processing area for the creation of glycoprotein
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
organelle involved in protein synthesis
What are vesicles?
Packages of substances to be used in cell or secreted by it
What is a nucleus?
The "brain" of a cell
What is a cell membrane?
The outer layer of a cell that regulates molecules going in and out, also protective and structural
What is a cell wall?
Structure that provides structural and protective role, in plants
What are the three methods for transporting ions through cell membrane?
Active transport, passive transport (diffusion), simple diffusion
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Tri-Phosphate
What is ADP?
Adenosine Diphosphate
What causes energy to be releaseed in a cell?
Breaking of molecular bond (ATP to ADP)
What molecule is used to create ATP?
What is the process of breaking down glucose to allow energy to be used by organism?
What are the three distinct areas of the process of respiration?
Kreb's cycle
Cytochrome System
Where does glycolysis occur in the cell?
What acid is created in glycolysis by breaking down glucose?
pyruvic acid
Does the Kreb's Cycle occur in aerobic conditions or anaerobic conditions?
Where does the pyruvic acid from glycolysis diffuse in the cell?
What process consists of the breakdown of pyruvic acid by enzymes, releasing CO2 and hydrogen?
Kreb's cycle
What is the hydrogen carrier system called?
Cytochrome system
Where is the cytochrome system found in a cell?
On the cristae of mitochondria
What is the process plants undertake to create organic materials from carbon dioxide and water with sunlight?
What are the two distinct areas of the photosynthesis process?
Photolysis (photochemical stage)
Calvin Cycle (thermochemical stage)
Where does photosynthesis occur in the cell?
In the granum of a chloroplast
What is the photosynthetic pigment that converts light to chemical energy?
What happens to oxygen in photolysis?
As water, oxygen is split from hydrogen and released as a byproduct
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur in the cell?
In the stroma of chloroplasts
What is another name for the Calvin Cycle?
The carbon fixation stage of photosynthesis
Where do animals get their energy?
From food
Where do plants get their energy?
From the sun
What determines the structure and functions of a cell?
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
What is the basic structural unit of nucleic acids?
What does the "A" in the DNA sequence ACGT stand for?
What does the "C" in the DNA sequence ACGT stand for?
What does the "G" in the DNA sequence ACGT stand for?
What does the "T" in the DNA sequence ACGT stand for?
What is the major store of genetic information in a cell?
What is DNA transcribed into?
What is RNA translated into?
What is a cell that does not have a nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles?
What is a cell that has a nuclear membrane?
What organelle is considered the "powerhouse" of the cell, where energy is obtained from food?
What part of a plant cell stores chlorophyll for use by chloroplasts?
What part of a cell carries out digestive functions?
What is the transportation system of a cell?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What part of a cell carries out cell transportation of protein materials?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
What part of the cell makes, stores and distributes hormones, enzymes, and other protein needed by cell?
Golgi apparatus
What part of the cell makes, stores, and secretes oxidation enzymes needed by the cell?
What are fluid-filled sacs in a cell that usually contain water, protein, etc.?
What are the short, cylindrical microtubules that play a role in cell movement by direction formation of cilia and flagella?
Basal bodies
What is the part of a plant cell that supports and protects the cell and is often made of cellulose?
Cell wall
What are the small bodies that lie just outside the nucleus in animal cells and play a role in cell division and motility?
Which part of the cell contains RNA, proteins and some DNA?
What are the threadlist structures of a cell composed mainly of DNA arranged in genes?
What is the balance or working equlibrium of a cell?
What provides energy, maintenance, growth and reproduction functions for cells?
What is the process in which protein is broken down into amino acids?
Protein degradation
What are amino acids reconstructed into to be used by organelles of a cell?
Peptide chains
What is the process of combining amino acids to produce peptide chains?
Protein synthesis
What is the process where each of two daughter nuclei receives the same chromosome complement as the parent nucleus?
What are the five phases of Mitosis?
First stage of mitosis: DNA replicates self in nucleus
Second stage of mitosis: Chromosomes condense, nuclear membrane disappears, chromosomes become attached to spindle fibers.
Third phase of mitosis: chromosomes align in the middle (equator)
Third stage of mitosis: Centromere of each chromatid split, chromosomes migrate to opposite poles of the cell
Fifth stage of mitosis: chromosomes begin to uncoil, nuclear membrane reappears, divides