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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cell Theory
-every living organism is made of cells
-cells arise from division of preexisting cells
-all cells have same basic chemical composition:carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids
apical surface
upper surface of epithelial cell-usually exposed to the lumen of an organ
basal surface
bottom of the epithelial cell that rests on the basement membrane
lateral cell surface
the sides of the epthelial cell
polygonal
having irregularly angular shapes with four, five, or sides
stellate
having multiple pointed processes projecting from the body of the cell, giving it a somewhat starlike shape
EX:
cell bodies of nerve cells
spheroid
round to oval
EX:
egg cells and white blood cells
discoid
disc-shaped
EX:
red blood cells
fusiform
spindle-shaped, elongated, with a thick middle and tapered ends
EX:
smooth muscle cells
fibrous
long, slender, and threadlike
EX:
skeletal muscle cells and the axons of nerve cells
cell (plasma) membrane
-surface boundary of cell
-selectively permiable membrane
-phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins
Functions:physical isolation, sensitivity and recognition, structural support, control of transport in and out of cell
cytoplasm
material inside the cell between the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane
Consists of: cytosol, inclusions, cytoskeleton, organelles
nucleus
largest organelle, surrounded by nuclear envelope
Contains: neoplasm, nucleoli, chromatin
-stores genetic info to control synthesis of proteins
-control center of cellular operations
phospholipids
polar head with phosphate group charged and hydrophilic
nonpolar tail(two fatty acids), uncharged and hydrophobic
cholesterol in cell mambrane
embedded in membrane, stabilizes lipid bilayer
Integral Proteins
firmly inserted into lipid bilayer, most are transmembrane
Peripheral Proteins
loosely attached to inner or outer layer via membrane lipids and/or proteins
Membrane Carbohydrates
(glycolipids)
branched sugar molecules attached to phospholipids or proteins in the lipid bilayer
-aid in cell recognition and communication
-form glycocalyx "sugar coating"
microvilli
fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane
-increase surface area of plasma membrane
-bruch border at apical surface
cilia
long, hairlike extensions
-motile cilia widespread in respiratory tract
-non motile in sensory organs
flagella
long, solitary, motile cilia; only flagella in humans is whiplike tail of male gamete