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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell
Basic functional unit of all living things.
Plasma Membrane
Or Cell Membrane, it binds the cell and encloses the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
Consists of specialized bodies called organelles suspended in a fluid matrix called the cytosol
Cytosol
Fluid matrix in a call which consists of water and dissolved substances such as proteins and nutrients
Cytosol
Fluid matrix in a call which consists of water and dissolved substances such as proteins and nutrients
Plasma Membrane Function
Separates internal metabolic events from the external enviroment and controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell. It is a double phospholipid membrane.
Peripheral proteins
Proteins that attach to the inner or outer surface of the membrane
Integral Proteins
Proteins that extend into the membrane
Transmembrane Proteins
Integral proteins that span across the membrance appearing at both surfaces
Fluid Mosaic Model
The mosaic nature of the scattered proteins within a flexible matrix of phospholipid molecules of the cell membrane
Lipid Bilayer
Phospholipid membrane with the polar hydrophilic heads forming the two outer faces and the nonpolar hydrophobic tails pointing toward the inside of the membrane
Phospholipid Membrane
It is selectively permeable. Only small, uncharged, polar molecules and hydrophobic molecules freely pass across the membrane.
Proteins
These in the plasma mebrane provide a wide range of functions and include the channel, transport, recognition, adhesion, receptor, and electron transfer proteins
Channel Proteins
Provides passageways through the membrane for certain hydrophilic substances such as polar and charged molecules
Transport Proteins
Spends energy (ATP) to transfer materials across the membrane. When energy is used for this purpose, the materials are said to be ACTIVELY transported and the process is called ACTIVE TRANSPORT
Recognition Proteins
Distinguish the identity of neighboring cells. THese are GLYCOPROTEINS because they have short polysaccharide chains (oligosaccharides) attached. The oligo. part of it protrudes like an antenna from the membrane
Adhesion Proteins
Attach cells to neighboring cells or provide anchors for the interal filaments and tubules that give stability to the cell
Receptor Proteins
Provide binding sites for hormones or trigger molecules. In response to the hormone or trigger molecule, a specific cell response is activated
Electron Transer Proteins
These are involved in transferring electrons from one molecule to another during chemical reactions.
Cholesterol
These molecules are distributed throughout the phospholipid bilayer and provide some rigity to the plasma membrane of ANIMAL CELLS. In plant cells, related substances (Sterols) provide a similar function.
Glycocalyx
A carbohydrate "coat" covering the outer face of the plasma membrane. It consists of various oligosaccharides that are attached to membrane phospholipids (glycolipids) and proteins (glycoproteins). It provides markers for cell-cell recognition.
Organelles
Bodies within the cytoplasm that serve to physically separate the various metabolic reactions that occur within cells
Nucleus
Bounded by the nuclear envelop, it contains DNA. It also serves as the site for the separation of chromosomes during cell division
Nuclear Envelop
Binds the nucleus and is a phospholipid bilayer similar to the plasma membrane
Chromatin
DNA that is spread out within the nucleus as a threadlike matrix
Chromosomes
Condensed rod-shaped bodies of chromatin made when the cell begins to divide, each of which is made up of two long DNA molecules and barious histone (protein) molecules before it divides
Nucleosomes
Bundles of DNA organized by histones
Nucleoli
Visible concentrations of DNA in the process of manufactoring the components of ribosomes
Ribosome
Its subunits are manufactured in the nucleus and consist of RNA molecules and proteines. The two subunits (60S and 40S) move across the nuclear envelop and into the cytoplasm where they are assembled into a single 80S ribosome. In the cytoplasm, these assist in the assembly of amino acids into proteins.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Consists of stacks of flattened sacs involved in the production of various materials. It appears to be maze-like.
Smooth ER
Without ribosomes, is responsible for various activities, including the synthesis of lipids and hormones, especially in cells that produce these substances for export from the cell. In liver cells, this is involved in the breakdown of toxins, drugs, and other toxic by-products
Golgi Apparatus/complex/body
group of flattened sacs arranged like a stack of bowls, function to modify and package proteins and lipids into vesicles
Vesicles
small, spherically shaped sacs that bud from the outside surface of the Golgi apparatus and they often migrate to and merge with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the outside of the cell
Lysosomes
vesicles from a Golgi apparatus that contain digestive enzymes. They break down food, cellular debris, and foreign invaders such as bacteria. They do not occur in plant cells.
Peroxisomes
organelles that break down various substances. During the breakdown process, O2 combines with hydrogen to form toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn is converted to H20. They are common in liver and kidney cells where they break down toxic substances and in photosynthesizing plant cells.
Mitochondria
carry out aerobic respiration, a process in which energy in the form of ATP is obtained from carbohydrates
Chloroplasts
carry out photosynthesis, the plant process of incorporating energy from sunlight into carbohydrates
Microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments
Three protein fibers of decreasing diameter, respectively. All are involved in establishing the shape of or in coordinating movements of the cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton
internal structure of the cytoplasm
Microtubules
are made up of the protein tubulin and provide support and motility for cellular activities. They are found in the spindle apparatus, and in flagella and cilia.
Tubulin
makes up microtubules
Spindle Apparatus
guides the movement of chromosomes during cell division and involves microtubules
Intermediate Filaments
provides support for maintaining the shape of the cell
Microfilaments
made up of the protein actin and are involved in cell motility. They are found in muscle cells and in cells that move by changing shape, such as phagocytes
Actin
ingredient of microfilaments
Flagella and Cilia
structures and protrude frmo the cell membrane and make wavelike movements. Flagella are long and few, Cilia are short and many. They are arranged in a 9+2 array-nine pairs of microtubules arranged in a circle surrounding a pair of microtubules
Centrioles and Basal Bodies
act as Mircrotubule Organizing Centers
MTOC
Microtuble organizing centers=centrioles and basal bodies, which help during cell division
centrosome
contains a pair of centrioles located outside the neculear envelop which gives rise to the spindle apparatus used during cell division
Centrioles
A pair enclosed in a centrosome outside the nuclear envelop gives rise to the microtubles that make up the spindle apparatus used during cell division. Plants lack centrioles. It is made up of nine triples arranged in a circle.
Basal Bodies
at the base of each flagellum and cilium and appear to organize their development. It is made up of nine triples arranged in a cirlce and only lower plants such as mosses and serns with motile sperm have flagella and basal bodies
Cell Walls
Found in plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria. They develop outside the plasma membrane and provide support for the cell. IN plans, it consists mainly of cellulose, and cell walls of fungi are made up of cellulose or chitin.
Cellulose
a polysaccaride made from beta-glucose, makes up cell walls of plants and some fungi
Chitin
modified polysaccharide differing from cellulose in that one of the hydroxyl groups is replaced by a group containing nitrogen, makes up some cell walls of fungi
Vacuoles and Vesicles
fluid-filled, membrane-bound bodies
Transport Vesicles
move materials between organelles or between organelles and the plasma membrane
Food Vacuoles
are temporary receptacles of nutrients. They often merge with lysosomes, whose digestive enzymes break down the food.
Storage Vacuoles
these in plants store starch, pigments, and toxic substances like nicotine for example
Central Vacuoles
large bodies occupying most of hte interior of certain plant cells. When fully filled, they exert turgor on the cell walls, thus maintaining rigidity in the cell. They also store nutrients and carry out functions otherwise assumed by lysosomes in animal cells.
Turgor
pressure
Contractile Vacuoles
specialized organelles in a single-celled organism that collect and pump excess water out of the cell
Cell Junctions
serve to ANCHOR cells to one another or to provide a passageway for cellular exchange
Picture of a Cell Junction
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Picture of Flagella, Cilia, and Basal Bodies
=
Picture of Cell
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Demosomes
protein attachments between adjacent ANIMAL cells. Inside the plasma membrane, this bears a disk-shaped structure from which protein fibers extend into the cytoplasm. They act like spot welds to hold together tissues that undergo considerable stress such as skin or heart muscle.
Tight junctions
tightly stithed seams between ANIMAL cells. the junction completely encircles each cell, preventing the movement of material between the cells. They are characteristic of cells lining the digestive tract where materials are required to pass through cells rather than intracellular spaces to penetrate the blood stream.
Gap Junctions
narrow tunnels between ANIMAL cells that consist of proteins called connexons. They allow communication between cells through the exchange of materials or through the transmission of electrical impulses.
Connexons
proteins that make up gap junctions. They prevent the cytoplasms of each cell from mizing, but allow the passage of ions and small molecules
Plasmodesmata, Plasmodesma
narrow channels between PLANT cells. A narrow tube of endoplasmic reticulum, a desmotubule, surrounded by cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, passes through the channel. Material exchange through this apparently occurs through the cytoplasm surrounding it.
Desmotubule
Narrow tube of endoplasmic reticulum that passes through the channels of Plasmodesmata
Characteristics of Plant Cells
Cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuoles
Characteristics of Animal Cells
lysosomes and centrioles
Eukaryotic
these organisms include all living things except for bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Prokaryotes
Bacteria and Cyanobacteria that lack all the organelles of eukaryotes and generally consist of only a plasma membrane, a DNA molecule, ribosomes, cytoplasms, and often cell walls.
Differing Prokaryotic Characteristics
No nucleus, heriditary material is a single naked DNA without proteins like eukaryotes, smaller, cell walls are made from petidoglycans, a polysaccharide-protein molecule, and flagella, when present, are not constructed of microtubules
Spindle Apparatus
made up of microtubules
Selectively Permeable Membrane
allows only specific substances to pass, like a plasma membrane does
Solvent
the substance which is moving (most of the time it is water)
solute
the substance dissolved in the water (solvent)
Higher to Lower concentration
"Down the concentration Gradient", opposite is "up or against the gradient"
Hypertonic
when there is a higher concentration of solutes
hypotonic
when tehre is a lower concentration of solutes
isotonic
an equal concentration of solutes relative to another region
Active movement
requires expenditure of energy and usually occurs up a gradient
Passive substance
requires no energy and usually occurs down the gradient
Bulk Flow
The collective movement of substances in the same direction in response to a force or pressure. An example of this is blood moving through a blood vessel.
Passive Transport
these processes describe the movement of substances form regions of higher to lower concentrations (down a concentration gradient) and do not require an expenditure of energy.
Simple Diffusion, or Diffusion
the NET movement of substances from an area of high concentration of an area of lower concentration. This occurs as a result of random and constant characteristics of all molecules, motion that is independent from the motion of others. It could be moving against teh gradient and "net" is used to indicate the overall, eventual result of the movement
Equilibrium
attained where molecules are uniformly distributed but continue to move randomly (in diffusion)
Osmosis
the diffusion of WATER molecules across a selectively permeable membrane. Whem water moves into a body through this, hydrostatic pressure may build up inside the body.
Osmotic pressure
hydrostatic pressure
Turgor Pressure
osmotic pressure that develops when water enters the cells of plants and microorganisms
Dialysis
the diffusion of SOLUTES across a selectively permeable membrane. The term is usually used when different solutes are separated by a selectively permeable membrane
Plasmolysis
the movement of water out of a CELL (osmosis) that results in the collapse of the cell, especially plant cells with central vacuoles
Facilitated Diffusion
the diffusion of SOLUTES through channel proteins in the plasma mebrane. Note that WATER can pass throguh the plasma mebrane without the aid of specialized proteins
Countercurrent exchange
the diffusion of substances between two regions in which substances are moving by bulk flow in opposite directions. For example, the gills of fish.
Active Transport
the movement of SOLUTES against a gradient and requires the expenditure of ENERGY, usually ATP. Transport protiens in the plasma membrane transfer solutes such as small ions like N+, K+, Cl-, H+, amino acids, and monosaccharides across the membrane
Vesicular Transport
uses vesicles or other bodies in the cytoplasm to move macromolecules or large particles across the plasma mebrane. This includes exocytosis and endocytosis
Exocytosis
describes the process of vesicles fusing with the plasma mebrance and releasing their contents to the outside of the cell. This is common when a cell produces substances for export
Endocytosis
describes the capture of a substance outside the cell when the plasma mebrance merges to engulf it. The substance subsequently enters the cytoplasm enclosed in a vesicle, this includes phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis
Phagocytosis
"cellular eating" occurs when UNDISSOLVED material enters teh cell. The plasma mebrance wraps round the solid material and engulfs it, forming a phagocytic vesicle. Phagocytic cells, like certain white blood cells, attack and engulf bacteria in this manner
Pinocytosis
"cellular drinking" occurs when DISSOLVED substances enter the cell. The plasma membrance folds inward to form a channel allowing the liquid to enter. Subsequently, the plasma mebrance closes off the channel, encircling the liquid inside a vesicle
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
occurs when SPECIFIC MOLECULES in the fluid surrounding the cell bind to specialized receptors that concentrate in coated pits in the plasma membrane. The coated pits, the receptors, and their specific molecules called ligands, fold inward and the formation of a vesicle follows. Proteins that transport cholesterol in blood (LDLs) and certain hormones target specific celles by using this process
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
occurs when SPECIFIC MOLECULES in the fluid surrounding the cell bind to specialized receptors that concentrate in coated pits in the plasma membrane. The coated pits, the receptors, and their specific molecules called ligands, fold inward and the formation of a vesicle follows. Proteins that transport cholesterol in blood (LDLs) and certain hormones target specific celles by using this process
Ligands
specific molecules in receptor-mediated endocytosis
Is it true that ONLY animal cells have mitochondria?
NO!!
Cell walls can be made up of
Chitin, polysaccharides, cellulos, and petidoglycans