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42 Cards in this Set

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Kinetochore
a DNA protein complex located at the centromere region of a chromosome that provides the attachment site for spindle microtubules during mitosis
cytoplasmic cycle
cell growth alternates with cytokinesis
Restriction Point
DNA base sequence usually 4 or 6 base pairs long that is cleaved by a specific enzyme restriction
Mitotic Spindle
microtubular structure responsible for separating chromosomes during mitosis
Chromatid
the two replicated copies of each chromosome that remain attached to each other prior to anaphase of mitosis
Heterochromatin/Euchromatin
high compacted form of chromatin present during interphase, contains DNA that is not being transcribed/loosely packed uncondensed form of chromatin present during interphase, contains DNA that is actively being transcribed
Karyotype
picture of the complete set of chromosomes for a particular cell type, organized as homologous pairs arranged on the basis of differences of size and shape
Replicon
total length of DNA replicated from a single origin of replication
Okazaki fragments
short fragments of newly synthesized lagging strand DNA that are joined together by DNA ligase during DNA replication
Centrosome
small zone of granular material surrounding two centrioles located adjacent to the nucleus of animal cell; functions as a cell’s main microtubule organizing center
Microtubules
polymer of the protein tubulin with a diameter of about 25 nm that is an integral part of the cytoskeleton and that contributes to the support, shape, and motility of eukaryotic cells
Cyclins
a group of proteins that activate the cyclin dependent kinases involved in regulating progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle
Quiescent
Cells that no longer divide
Chromosome cycle
DNA synthesis alternates with mitosis
Centriole
microtubule containing structure embedded within the centrosome of animal cell
Chromosome
in eukaryotic cells a single DNA molecule complexed with histones and other proteins, that become condensed into a compact structure at the time of mitosis
Chromatin
DNA protein fibers that make up chromosomes constructed from nucleosomes space regularly along a DNA chain
Centromere
Point along a chromosome where sister chromatids are held together prior to anaphase and where kinetochores are attached
Nucleotides
molecule consisting of a nitrogen containing base linked to a 5 carbon sugar, attached to a phosphate group (also called nucleoside monophosphate)
Lagging strand
Strand of DNA that grows in the 3’  5’ direction following DNA replication by discontinuous synthesis of short fragments in the 5’3’ direction followed by ligation of adjacent fragment
Leading strand
strand of DNA that grows in the 5’3’ direction during DNA replication by continuous synthesis
Gap 1
cell growth, increased protein synthesis, normal cell functions, 8-10 hours long
Restriction point (bacteria)=START (yeast)=critical point
S-phase activator marks boundary between G1 and S Phase
Checkpoint 1
check for cell size, nutrients, growth factors, DNA damage
S
DNA synthesis, 6-8 hours long
MDF appear—Mitosis Delaying Factor
Mitosis will not begin if DNA replication isn’t complete
Gap 2
MDF disappear; 4-6 hours long
MPF appear
Cannot stop mitosis once MPF appears
Synthesis of spindle proteins
Checkpoint 2
check for cell size and DNA replication
M
Prophase—chromosomes condense
Metaphase—centromere, miotic spindle
Anaphase—chromosomes align in the middle
Telephase—sister chromatids separate
Cytokinesis—daughter cells form
Spindle Assembly Checkpoint
chromosomes must be attached to spindle
Prophase
individual chromosomes are condensed and visible
Sister chromatids attached to the centromere
Centrosome—small zone of material adjacent to nucleus responsible for organization
Mitotic spindle—distributes chromosomes to the daughter cells
Centrioles—contains microtubules
Metaphase
chromosomes aligned in metaphase plate
20 minutes
Colchine—used to generate metaphase arrested cells
Karyotype
Anaphase
shortest phase
Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles
Anaphase A--Chromosomes are pulled toward spindle poles
Anaphase B --Poles move from each other
Telephase
daughter chromosomes arrive at poles
Chromosomes uncoil and return to interphase chromatin
Nucleoli develop, spindle disassembles, nuclear envelope forms
Cell fusion
S+G1=S activated in G1 nucleus
M+G1=M activated in non-M nucleus
yeast cells
cheap, easy to grow, easy to maintain
Mendel
studied inheritance
Watson and Crick
described structure of DNA
Hershey and Chase
bateriophage—viruses that infect bacteria
Avery, MacLeod, McCarty
DNA is transforming factor
Griffith
Strep pneumo
Thomas Hunt Morgan
studied Drosophilia
Walter Sutton
discovered chromosomes physical carrier of factors of inheritance
Miescher
first to isolate nuclein