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22 Cards in this Set

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cell membrane
a thin, flexible covering that regulates the movement of materials into/out of a cell
nucleus
the "control centre" - a large mass that holds the genetic material and tells the cell what to do
cytoplasm
the region between the nucleus and the cell membrane made up of cytosol and organelles
cytosol
jelly-like substance made up of water and other compounds
vacuole
a large organelle used to store various materials and assist in water regulation
mitochondria
the "power supply" - produces energy from sugar through a process called cellular repiration
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of membranes
ribosome
produces proteins
Golgi body
pancake-like organelles that modify, package, and ship proteins and fats to different parts of the cell
centrioles
protein fibres that aid in cell division by helping to move genetic material
cell wall
non-living layer on the outside of PLANT cells that protects the cell and give it shape
chloroplasts
green organelles in PLANT cells responsible for photosynthesis (changing light energy into food or sugar)
nuclear membrane
the membrane that protects the nucleus
selectively permeable
describes cell membranes that allow small molecules to pass through easily, but not larger molecules
diffusion
the movement of molecules from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration

e.g. spreading of perfume spray
osmosis
the movement of WATER molecules from an area of HIGH water concentration to an area of LOW water concentration

"water diffusion"
photosynthesis
carbon dioxide + water ---> light energy/chlorophyll ---> sugar and oxygen

*occurs in chloroplasts
cellular respiration
sugar and oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy

*occurs in mitochondria
enzymes
special proteins that speed up chemical reactions
chromosomes
thread-like structures contained in the nucleus (made up of DNA and proteins)
DNA
genetic material made up of 4 different types of nucleotides
gene
a series of nucleotides that codes for a specific enzyme