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31 Cards in this Set

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What are all living organisms composed of?
Cells
Unicellular Organisms
Organisms composed of a single cell
Multicellular Organisms
Organisms composed of many cells
Prokaryotic Cells
-Small, simple cells
-no membrane bound organelles
-first cells to appear about 3.5 billion years ago
-EX: bacteria
Eukaryotic Cells
-Larger, more complex cells
-Membrane bound organelles
-evolved 2.1 billion years ago
-EX: Protists, Fungi, Plants, & Animals
Cell Theory
"Cells are structural, functional, and reproductive units of all living things."
Which scientists came up with the cell theory?
1. Robert Hooke
2. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
3. Matthias Schleiden
4. Theodor Schwann
5. Rudolf Virchow
How are nutrients, wastes, and chemicals moved in, around, and out of prokaryotic cells?
Diffusion
How are nutrients, wastes, and chemicals moved in, around, and out of eukaryotic cells?
by structures called organelles
Cyanobacteria
photosynthetic bacteria
produced oxygen as a waste product of photosynthesis to to give the ancient atmosphere oxygen
Coccus/Cocci
Spherical shape
Bacillus/Bacilli
rod shaped
Spirillum/spirilli
spiral or corkscrew shaped
Sperm Cells
male gametes used for sexual reproduction

carry 23 chromosomes
What do human sperm carry in the head?
Many mitochondria (produces energy for ____ to beat flagellum) and 23 chromosomes
How do human sperm swim?
By beating a flagellum
- only cell that has one
epithelial tissue
tissue characterized by tightly packed cells in an either an irregular, cubodial, or columnar shape

covers body surfaces, organs, and lines body cavities and tracts
microvilli
increase the surface area for maximum absorption of food
goblet cell
at the pointer of the epithelial tissue

specialized cell with a large storage vacuole that contains mucous that is secreted to lubricate the digestive tract so food can pass along easily
adipose tissue
type of connective tissue that is specialized to store fat in a large vacuole inside each adipocyte cell
platelets
smallest cells

fragments

assist in blood clotting

live about 10 days
smooth muscle cells/muscle fibers
long, thin

spindle shaped
adipose tissue
type of connective tissue that is specialized to store fat in a large vacuole inside each adipocyte cell
erythrocytes
red blood cells that are made of hemoglobin protein and carry oxygen to all cells of the body
leukocytes
white blood cells

defend the body against foreign invaders and can live hours, days, months or years
neurons
specialized cells designed to receive and sell nerve impulses to and from other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells

composed of an enlarged area called the cell body that contains the large nucleus
dendrites
small projections that receive nerve impulse from other neurons and conduct them TOWARDS the cell body
axon
one long projection that conducts impulses AWAY from cell body to other neurons, muscle cells, or glands
epidermal cells
layer of cells that form a tight, waterproof, protective layer
guard cells
two large kidney shaped cells that open and close an area called the stoma
stoma
controls the amount of carbon dioxide that enters the leaf and the amount of water vapor and oxygen that exits