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21 Cards in this Set

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Glycolosis

net products
decomposition of glucose that happens in the cytosol.



2 pyruvate
2 ATP fro substrate level phosphorylation
2 NADH
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Stepwise reactions in mitochondria to produce ATP using the electron transport chain and redox reactions
substrate level phosphorylation
Enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule directly onto ADP. (generally from catabolis of glucose but not necessarily)
NAD+
(Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)
important coenzyme found in cells. It plays key roles as carriers of electrons in the transfer of reduction potential. At key points Hydrogen atoms are stripped and transferred to NAD+ along with 2 electrons.
Dehydrogenase
an enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring one or more protons and a pair of electrons to an acceptor, usually NAD/NADP or a flavin coenzyme such as FAD or FMN.

Removes a pair of H atoms, one is released as H+ to solution.
3 steps to turn pyruvate into Acetyl Co A
1) carboxyl group is released as CO2

2) Remaining 2 carbon fragment is oxidized to form acetate. An enzye transfers the electrons onto NAD+ making NADH.

3) Co A, a sulfur containing compound made from a B vit, is attached to the acetate by an unstable bond that makes the acetyl group very reactive.
Krebs Cycle
(concept and net result)
8 steps, 2 carbons enter as acetate and leave as CO2. For each mol of acetate entering the cycle:
3- NADH
1 - FADH2
1- substrate level phosphorylation to make ATP
Cytochromes
Proteins in electron transport chain that act as electron carriers between Q and oxygen. They have a heme prosthetic.
Cytrochrome A3
passes the final electron to O2.
for every 2 NADH
at the end of the electron chain
one O2 is reduced to 2 H2O
Which contains more free energy, FADH2 or NADH?
NADH. FADH2 has about 1/3 the energy. Result from FADH2 is 2 ATP max.
cheiosmosis
is the diffusion of ions across a membrane. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane.

Used in both respiration and photosynthesis
ATP synthase
is a general term for an enzyme that can synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate by utilizing some form of energy.
proton motive force
H+ gradient with a capacity to produce work.
Fermentation
Glyolysis with reactions to regenerate NAD+ by transferring electrons from NADH to pyruvate or its derivitaves.
Alcohol fermentation
Pyruvate is converted to ethanol in 2 steps.
1) relese CO2 from pyruvate to make acetaldehyde.
2) acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to ethanol.
Lactic acid fermentation
Pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to for lactate without CO2 production
deamination
removal of amino group so an amino acid can enter glycolysis or the Krebs Cycle.
beta oxidation
breaks down fats to 2 carbon fragments to enter Krebs as Acetyl Co A.
Phosphofructokinase

concept
inhibited and stimmed by
first step that irreversibly commits a molecule to glycolytic pathway so it is considered a pacemaker of respiration.

Inhibited by ATP and stimmed by AMP. Also sensitive to citrate that accumulates in the cytosol because it can migrate to mitochondria and inhibit phosphofructokinase
What are the 2 parts of glycolysis
1) energy spending - Splits glucose and turns it into 2 triose sugars taking 2 ATP to do so
2) energy payoff - 2 NADH are formed by dehydrogenating those sugars and 4 ATP are made turning those into pyruvate.