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64 Cards in this Set

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_________ _______________ regulate the passage of materials in and out of the cell.
Cell membranes
Some substances, like _______________ and ______________, diffuse freely through the cell membrane by ______________.
Oxygen
Water
Osmosis
Large _________________, like sugars and amino acids, mjust pass through the _____________ with carrier proteins.
Molecules
Membrane
A _____________ is selectively permeable because it is impermeable to some materials and permeable to others.
Cell
Membrane
During ___________________, light energy is used to change carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.
Photosynthesis
During ________________, oxygen is combined with glucose to releaswe carbor dioxide, water, and ATP.
respiration
_____________________ is an energy-releasing process that produces carbon dioxide, alcohol or lactid acid, and ATP.
Fermentation
All cells have a cycle of _____________ and ________________.
Growth and Division.
The period of growth and development in a cell is called _______________. During _______________, the cell doubles in size.
Interphase
The cell's _________________ and __________________ divide during mitosis.
Nucleus and cytoplasm.
What are the four phases of mitosis?
1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase
The process of breaking down glucose with oxygen is called _______________.
Respiration
The diffusion of water across the cell membrane is called __________________.
Osmosis
Movement of a substance from a high concentration to a low concentration is ______________.
Diffusion
A cell divides into two identical nuclei during ____________________.
Mitosis
Respiration releases more ATP energy from glucose than __________________ does.
fermentation
Cell activity is controlled by ___________________ in a cell's nucleus.
Chromosomes
The process by which plants convert light energy to chemical energy is _______________.
Photosynthesis
What are the reactants of respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen
How does diffusion differ from osmosis?
diffusion water goes through the mebrane. osmosis water goes across the membrane
____________ and ______________ are types of passive transport.
Osmosis and Diffusion.
Certain substances diffuse freely into or out of cells. For these substances, the membrane is ______________.
Permeable
For many other substances, the cell membrane is a barrier. They cannot pass freely through the membrane. For these substances, the membrane is _________________.
Impermeable
Because a cell membrane is impermeable to some materials and permeable to others, it is described as ______________________.
Selectively permeable.
How do larger molecules like sugars and amino acids get into a cell?
Larger molecules moves cell membrane using special particles of protein embedd.
The _____________, or _____________, actually carry larger molecules from one side of the membrane to the other.
protein molecules
"carriers"
Carrier molecules are specialized to do certain jobs. Each carrier molecule allows the movement of only _____ type of molecule across a ______________ ________________.
One
Cell Membrane
Many substances that can move freely through the membrane must be kept at a _________ concentration on one side of the cell membrane than on the other.
higher
In order to move a substance to a more concentrated area, a cell uses ________________ _________________.
Active transport
Active transport requires ___________.
energy
The ____________ ___________of _________ in the cell membrane are involved in active transport.
large particles of protein
Organisms get the energy they need to carry out their life processes from the _____________ ______________ in food.
chemical bonds
All animals depend on other organisms to obtain energy. Plants, however, do not depend on other organisms for energy. Plants get energy by a process called _______________________.
photosynthesis
What does the word photosynthesis mean?
"putting together with light".
Where does photosynthesis take place?
In the chloroplasts of a plant's cell.
Photosynthesis has two stages, what is the first stage?
1) Water is split.
Photosynthesis has two stages, what is the second stage?
Hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to produce glucose.
What is chlorophyll?
It is a green pigment in the chloroplasts of a plant's cells.
The ______________ _______________ trapped by chlorophyll is used to split molecules of water into atoms of hydrogen and oxygen.
light energy
________________ provides the energey needed for the photosynethsis reaction to take place.
Sunlight
What are the reactives of Photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide and water.
What are the products of Photosynthesis?
Glucose and oxygen.
During photosynthesis, ___________ ___________ is changed, or converted, into chemical energy.
Light energy.
The cells of both plants and animals use the __________ ____________stored in glucose.
chemical energy
Before any cell can use the chemical energy stored in the glucose, the glucose molecules must ________ ________.
break apart
During respiration, glucose breaks down into ________ and _________ _________ and releases energy.
water
carbon dioxide
After the glucose is broken down into water and carbon dioxide and the energy is released, it is carried throughout the organism by a compound called ______.
ATP
The are the reactives of Respiration?
Glucose and oxygen
What are the products of respiration?
Carbon dioxide and water.
Like _______________, ______________ takes place inside the cell.
photosynthesis, respiration
Repiration begins in the _______________.
Cytoplasm.
____________________ happens only if oxygen is present.
Respiration
When the cells do not have enough oxygen to carry out respiration, another energy-releasing process may take place called _______________.
fermentation.
The production of either _______ ________ or ___________ is determined by the type of cell.
lactic acid or alcohol. For example, your muscle cells produce lactic acid if oxygen is not present.
Most of a cell's life is spent in a phase of growth and development called _____________.
Interphase
During interphase, the amount of ____________in the nucleus is doubled.
DNA
To form a complete new cell, both the ____________ and the ______________ must divide.
nucleus
cytoplasm
The process by which a cell nucleus divides into two identical nuclei is called ________________.
Mitosis.
The cycle of growth and division that takes place in animal cells starts with ___________________ and continues through the four phases of ____________.
interphase
mitosis
Cell division differs slightly in plants and animals. Plant cells don't have ________________, but they do have _________________.
centrioles
spindle fibers
True or false, for substances that diffuse freely in an dout of cells, the membrane is ___________________.
permeable.
True or false. The chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun.
True.
True or false. Respiration can only happen if oxygen is absent.
False. Respiration can only happen if oxygen is present.
True or false. Plants get carbon dioxide from soil.
False. Plants get carbon dioxide from the air.