Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell Membrane
1.phospholipid bilayer
2.embedded protein and carbs
3.1st line of defense
Nucleus normal function
Initiation of protein synthesis
When nucleus is affected
It causes demonstrable changes within the cell
Mitochondria; Normal function
1.Generation of ATP
2.May swell or condense
Mitochondrial reaction to hypoxia
Loss of ability to generate energy(ATP) due to lack of oxygen.
Golgi Apparatus; normal function
1.Packages cell products
2.Can swell when cell is disrupted.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. Lipid production/packaging
2.Usually becomes dilated
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
1.Protien production
2.Becomes dilated when cell are damaged.
3.Ribosomes detach
Contain lytic substances or cellular products for export out of the cell.
Maintains cell shape and integrity
Epithelium Cells
Cells that line the surface
Simple squamous epithelium
May be located at sites of rapid diffusion, such as the lining of lung alveoli, the lining of blood vessels (called endothelium), and at sites where very little activity is occuring, such as Bowman's capsule in the kidney and the lining of major body cavities (called mesothelium).
Cuboidal epithelium
Is commonly encountered in glandular ducts.
Simple columnar epithelium
1. is usually involved in active secretion and/or absorption of material across the single cell layer
2.Lines the digestive tract and the female reproductive tract
Abnormal immune response to exogenous/endogenous antigens.
Five antibodies
1. IgM
2. IgG
3. IgA
4. IgE
5. IgD
First to appear after immunization.
Largest immunoglobulin.
Antibody against ABO antigens
Found in high concentrations,crosses the placenta, facilitates bacterial phagocytosis
Found in mucosal secrestions, milk and instestinal contents.
Mediates allegic responses, can be responsible for anaphylactic reactions
Bound to cell membranes of B lymphocytes
AIDS mechanism
Attacks T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages to reduce immune response.
Unregulated new growth of genectically altered tissue: expression of oncogenes
Malignant cancer cells
1. Adenocarcinoma
2. Anaplastic Adenocarcinoma
1. Poorly differentiated and has a passing resemblence to orginal cell. Aggressive
Anaplastic Adenocarcinoma
Undifferentiated cell groups that show little resemblence to glands. Very aggressive. Fastest growing.
Metastatic spread through four main routes
1.Local: Direct growth into adjacent tissue.
2.Lymphatic: Via vessels to nodes.
3.Vascular: Via vessels
4. Transcoelomic: Only in abdomen/thorax
Tumor Grading
1.Degree of differentiation
2.Degree of pleomorphism
3.Number of mitotic cells
Grade I
Grade III
a. Well differentiated
b. Undifferentiated
Staging of Tumor
1. Size: T=tumor, T0-T3
2. Degree of local invasion (N=Node; N0-N2
3. Extent of spread M0,M1,MX (M=Metastisis)
Carcinoma in situ
An early form of carcinoma defined by the absence of invasion of surrounding tissues.
Is an abnormality in the appearance of cells due to disturbances in the cell maturation process. This is indicative of an early step towards transformation into a neoplasia
Mesenchymal Tumors
Fibroblast,fat cell,blood vessels,smooth muscle cell,striated muscle cell,cartilage,bone cell.
Epithelial Tumors
Squamous epithelium,transitional epithelium,glandular epithelium,neuroendocrine cells,liver/kidney cells
Tumors of blood cells and lymphocytes
White blood stem cells
Tumors of neural cell precursors
Tumors of glial cells and neural supporting cells
Glial cells
Germ cell tumors
Embryonic cells
Epithelial origin;
Epithelial origin;
Epithelial origin;
Epithelial origin;
Malignant glandular tumor