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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phospholipids and sphingolipids are what type of molecules? what type of vesicles do they form?
ampiphathic molecules - two hydrophobic tails; form bilayer vesicles
where does beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids occur?
where does degradation of DNA occur?
where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
where does post-translational modification of proteins occur?
when NO is released and diffuses into a smooth muscle cell, what does it turn on?
guanylate cyclase, which makes the second messenger cGMP, which triggers smooth muscle relaxation
what synthesized nitric oxide from arginine?
nitric oxide synthase - produces citrulline as a by-product
this is used to form nucleotids by adding a phosphoribosyl group to a nitrogenous base
what covers most microvilli & apparently helps to prevent them from trauma?
layer of glycocalyx
what is glial fibrillary acidic protein?
intermediate filament found in astrocytes
how are chromatids pulled apart during anaphase?
kinetochore microtuules from each of the two spindle poles attach to teh kinetochore plates of the centromere to pull the chromatids apart during anaphase
gap junctions are made of a hexagonal lattice of tubular rotein subunits called what?
connexons - form hydrophilic channels connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells
what structure are sealing strands found in?
tight junctions
what are tonofilaments found in?
desmosomes and hemidesmosomes
what contains type IV collagen, glycoproteins including laminin, and proteoglycans, including heparan sulfate?
basal lamina
what involves unfolding a fully translated protein, transporting it into the mitochondria, and then refolding it using other HSP proteins?
import of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondria
what type of gene is the Rb gene?
tumor suppressor
what is the role of calreticulin?
binds to misfolded proteins and prevents them from being exported to the golgi
where does synthesis of the LDL receptor begin?
in cytosol on free ribosomes - completed on ribosomes bound to RER
what happens if a protein cannot refold properly?
it is targeted for degradation by proteases
the formation of a junctional complex relies on what?
homotypic interaction between E-cadherin proteins on adjacent cells - initiates the formation of zona adherens, including signaling pathways, which are then activated to initiate the formation of zona occludens and desmosomes
what are microvilli made of?
extensions of bundles of actin filaments, or microfilaments; myosin is associated
during contraction of a skeletal muscle, what maintains its uncontracted length?
A band
what quality control chaperone in the RER binds to misfolded membrane proteins and prevents them form proceeding to the golgi?
what quality control chaperone binds to misfolded soluble proteins and prevents them from going to the golgi?
what do antibodies attack in pemphigus vulgaris?
what is the transmembrane cadherin that forms intercellular linkages at desmosomes?
what organelle is responsible for sorting and packaging of proteins?
what protein property is birefringence related to?
beta-pleated sheet secondary structure
the crystalline core of an eosinic granule contains what?
major basic protein - appears to function in the destruction of parasites
name 3 sites where elastic fibers are found
large arteries (esp. aorta), vocal cords, and ligamenta flava (which connect the vertebrae); small amounts also found in skin
acini in what salivary gland are almost pure mucous cells?
mixture of serous and mucuous cells?
mostly pure serous cells?
striated muscle under voluntary control is found in what part of the esophagus?
upper third; middle third is roughly half striated and half smooth; lower third contains only smooth
primordial eggs remain stopped in what stage from before birth until ovulation?
diplotene stage of first meotic division
what is the appropriate stain for pneumocystis?
methenamine silver
what cells of the anterior pituitary stain pink?
somatotropes - GH, mammotropes - prolactin
what cells of the anterior pituitary stain blue on H&E?
corticotropes - ACTH, gonadotropes - FSH & LH, thyrotropes - TSH
what is the only site of the kidney in which epithelial cells have a brush border made of microvilli?
proximal convoluted tubule
how do fascial straps (retinacula) and fascial coverings of muscles or muscle groups attach to nearby bones?
blending with the covering periosteum; no deep attachments are made by fascia
what are the three phases of spermatogenesis?
spermatocytogenesis, meiosis, spermiogenesis
what type of cell is the germ cell closest to the basal lamina in the seminiferous tubule?
what ear structure contains hair cells?
organ of corti (from the cochlear branch of CN VII)
what is a good stain for fungi?
methenamine silver
why is cartilage particularly vulnerable to infection?
because it is relatively avascular - immune system cannot access it effeciently
calcification of what is notorious for producing 'phantom' lung lesions?
hyaline cartilage of the costal cartilages
what type of cell is spindle-shaped like a fibroblast but contains several bundlese of microfilaments in its cytoplasm?
where is fenestrated epithelium seen?
what is responsible for producing the majority of new bone after a fracture?