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25 Cards in this Set

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Translation
RNA directed protein synthesis
Eukaryotic mRNA
single strand of ribonucleotides;
processing occurs in nucleus;
monocistronic;
reads in 5' to 3' direction
Start codon
AUG (Met)
Stop codon
UAA, UGA, UAG
Eukaryotic tRNA
single strand of 70-80 ribonucleotides;
adaptor molecule between mRNA and amino acid;
folds into L structure;
has 3' CCA;
has anticodon
3' CCA
site of amino acid attachment
Anticodon
3 nucleotide residue sequence;
specifies particular amino acid
Wobble
the reduced specificity of hydrogen bonding between the third base on the codon and anticodon
Anticodon is _______ to codon.
complimentary
Eukaryotic ribosome (80S)
large subunit (60S) consists of 28S, 5.8S, and 5S rRNA;
small subunit (40S) consists of 18S rRNA and 30 proteins
Eukaryotic rRNA
45S pre-rRNA: transcribed in nucleolus;
5.0S rRNA: transcribed outside nucleolus and inside nucleus
Three stages of Translation
initiation
elongation
termination
In what direction do ribosomes move along mRNA?
5' to 3'
In what direction is protein synthesized?
N terminal to C terminal
RNAi
short sequence of RNA complementary to region of specific mRNA; upon binding, the RNAi catalzes the destrucution of the mRNA to which it binds
What is the destinantion of free ribosomes?
perioxisomes
nucleus
mitochondria
chloroplasts
What is the destination of membrane-bound ribosomes?
plamsma membrane
lysosomes
secretory vescicles
Folding of proteins
primary amino acid sequence assumes final three dimensional conformation
Modification of proteins
covalent bond formation;
proteolysis;
addition of constituents such as sugars, lipids, and phosphorlyation
What is the function of chaperones?
Chaperons aid in folding.
What is the function of Hsp70?
prevents premature folding
What is the function of Hsp60?
protects protein from surrounding environment to allow protein to fold slowly
Name the two enzymes that alter covalent bonds during protein folding.
PDI-Protein Disulfide Isomerase;
Peptidly Prolyl Isomerase
Protein Disulfide Isomerase
insures proper disulfide bond formation between cysteine residues
Peptidly Prolyl Isomerase
catalzyes isomerization of peptide bonds involving proline