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4 Cards in this Set
What are 2 conditions of change that lead to variation?
*must be heritable - affect germ line
*must not prevent the individual from reproducing
Describe the main sources of genetic variation.
*There are 6 listed in the notes.
*Mutation within a gene - point mutations: change a single nucleotide, duplicate or delete one or more nucleotides in gene DNA sequence usually a result of rare “mistakes” made during DNA replication or failures in DNA repair after DNA damage.
existing gene, its part or large segment of DNA can be duplicated.
It creates a set of closely related genes in a single cell. After additional mutations in cell progeny, duplicated genes can assume functions distinct from those of the original gene *source of genetic novelty for evolving organisms.
Individual genes or blocks of genes can be lost through chromosome breakage and failures to repair.
two or more existing genes can be broken and rejoined to make a hybrid gene containing DNA segments from different genes.
*Horizontal (intercellular) gene transfer:
piece of DNA can be transferred from the genome of one cell to the genome of another cell or to the genome of another species.
*Movement of transposable elements:
cause of often observed “spontaneous” mutations, can create new exon arrangements - new genes.
Define: point mutation.
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide.
Process by which bacterial cells can horizontally transfer DNA.
-Plasmids often carry genes for antibiotic resistance and can be transferred from species to species.