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298 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What do autotrophs use as the source of carbon?
CO2 and CH4
Autotrophs have all the same enzyme systems as?
Heterotrophs
3 stages of food breakdown?
1)hydrolysis
2)conversion into acetyl coA
3)glycolysis, beta-oxidation, etc.
How much of our energy is made during glycolysis?
10%
What breaks down a fatty acid?
beta-oxidation
What is the common intermediete?
acetyl coA
What is the most universal catabolic pathway?
glycolysis (also oldest pathway and its universal)
How can glycolysis be so fast and efficient?
there must be a chain of enzymes in the cytoplasm
What are the first 3 steps of glycolysis called and what does it do?
the activation reactions. it phosphoryates glucose
What high energy bond breaks and makes ATP during glycolysis?
COO-PO3H2
How many calories in AMP and ADP/ATP?
3000 and 7000
What is the cells prefered way of metabolizing?
glycolysis
What food molecules are broken down first?
glucose
What do aldoses and ketoses get turned into?
aldoses-glucose
ketose-fructose
What does NAD stand for?
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
What is the overall reaction of glycolysis?
glucose+2ATP --> 2 pyruvate+4 ATP+2 NADH,H
What does the first step of aerobic respiration do?
turns pyruvate into acetyl coA (called the gateway reaction)
what enzymes do anabolism and catabolism use?
anabolism-NADP
catabolism-NAD
what can pyruvate be turned into for energy?
acetyl coA, ethanol, lactic acid-->propanoic acid, and alanin
What enzyme is needed for the gateway reaction?
pyruvate dehydrogenase
What is the condensing enzyme?
citrate synthetase
How were the steps of the Kreb's Cycle discovered?
Sir Hans Krebs using inhibitors at every step
How do plants and animals differ in the krebs cycle?
animals make ATP and plants make GTP
What would happen to plants and animals if a krebs cycle toxin were given?
animals would die, but plants have other ways to make food
WHere does the majority of ATP come from?
the oxidation reactions
What percent of glucose is actually made into ATP?
50%
What are some oxidation toxins?
CO and CN
What is the most common fatty acid?
palmitic acid
What do you get more ATP energy per unit weight from?
fat
What is the overall reaction of the Krebs Cycle?
Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetate --> 2CO2+ 3NADH,H+ 1FADH2+ 1 ATP
What is the mitochondria called and how much of the bodys energy is made there?
power plant of the cell; 90%
Where does respiration take place?
The inner memebrane (cristae) of the mitochondria
What do more active cells have?
more mitochondria and more cristae folding
What happens at the end of reproduction?
reduction of oxygen and production of water
What makes ATP during the oxidation reactions?
hydrogen pumps make a large concentration gradient of H+, so they rush in through the ATP synthase and the mechanical energy is turned into chemical energy to phosphorylate ADP
What are the sources of high energy electrons for oxidative phosphorylation?
NADH,H
FADH2
light
What are the 3 respiratory enzyme complexes?
1)NADH dehydrogenase complex
2)Cytochrome b,c complex
3)Cytochrome a-oxidase complex
What are the 2 components of ATP synthase?
rotor and stator
What is the overall reaction of photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the evolutionary chain of photosynthesis?
chemoautotrophic prokaryotes --> photosynthetic prokaryotes --> oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes
What are the two steps of photosynthesis?
Biophysical steps (ligh reactions) and Biochemical steps (dark reactions)
What is photophosphorylation?
Using light energy to phosphorylate ADP
WHat are the 3 steps of the light reactions?
photophosphorylation, photolysis of water, and reduction of coenzymes (all of these are physical events!)
Why do plants need the dark reactions?
ATP cannot cross the chloroplast membrane
Which energy pathway has a faster rate?
During the day photosynthesis does
What can activated chlorophyll deactivate into?
heat, red flouresence, or an electron
WHere must the chloropyll be to work?
in the photosynthetic unit (quantosome)(only the tip gets ionized)
Where do teh biochemial and the biophysical reactions occur?
biochemical-stroma
biophysical-thylakoid membrane
What does oxigenic photosynthesis involve?
cyclic photosystem
What is glycogenesis?
when glycogenic amino acids are converted into glucose
How did Calvin discover the steps of the Calvin cycle?
used radioactive CO2 and paper chromatography
How is glucose made in the dark reactions?
RuBP+CO2 --rubisco-> 2PGA -->-->--> glucose
What are grana and what are they connected by?
grana are a stack of thylakoids. grana are connected by lamella.
What type of carotenoids?
carotene (orange), xanthophyll (yellow), lycopen (red)
What breaks down chlorophyll?
chlorophyllase
what percent of the cell is organelles?
50%
Where do proteins made in a free ribosome go?
nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast, peroxisome
Where do proteins made in a membrane bound ribosome go?
plasma membrane, secretory vesicles, and lysosomes
What are the 3 types of protein transport?
nuclear pores, transporting across the membrane, and vesicular transport
How many needed proteins do mitochondria and chloroplasts make?
mitochondria-20%
chloroplast-60%
What is needed for membrane bound transport?
chaperone proteins
Where are soluable/insoluable proteins made?
soluable-membrane bound ribosomes
insoluable-free ribosomes
What guides a protein to its destination?
signal sequence
What is the inside of the ER called?
lumen
What are the two steps of vesicular distribution?
buding and fusion
How does a protein get inside the ER?
translocation channel
Whats the marker for going outside of the cell?
clattrin
What can serve as a marker and receptor?
v-snares and t-snares
What happens when a protein is glycosylated?
a lipid-linked oligosaccharide is added
What are the 2 sides of the golgi?
cis (reciever) and trans (sender)
Whats the difference between constitutive secretion and regulated secretion?
regulated has a signal (hormone, nuerotransmitter, etc)
What are the 4 types of signalling?
Endocrine, paracrine, neuronal, and contact dependent
What does acytlcholine do?
relaxes heart muscle, secretes saliva, and contracts skeletal muscle
What types of receptors are they?
intracellular and extracellular
What types of receptors are steroids?
intracellular
How does viagra work?
NO (relaxes the muscles around the arteries)
What are the 3 types of extracellular receptors?
1)Ion channel linked
2)G protein linked
3)Enzyme linked
What does cyclic AMP do?
interacts with a variety of enzymesand modifies the function of the cell
What 2 ways can signalling activate a cell?
Phosphorylation and GTP-binding proteins
What does gycogen and epinephrine activate?
glucokinase enzyme
What does cell to cell signalling need?
hormone and receptor
Where can receptors be?
on the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm, or on the nucleus
When does cell signalling work directly or indirectly?
Works directly when receptor is on teh nuclus or cytoplasm; indirectly when on the plasma membrane
What kind of effect do water soluble hormones have?
short and immediete
What can water soluble hormones cause receptors to do?
trigger ion channel, formation of protein kinase, formation of protein tyrosine-P, formation of cAMP, or activation of G protein
What does cyclic AMP do?
makes the protein kinase active
WHat kind of receptors are cytokine recpetors?
intracellular
How much of an animal cell is taken up by the cytoskeleton?
50%
What is the cytoskeleton responsible for?
shape of cells, position and movement of organelles, and cellular movement
What technique was used to discover the cytoskeleton?
immunofluerecense
Structural elements of the cytoskeleton from thinnest to thickest?
microfilament, intermediete filament, and microtubules
What are microtubles used in?
spindle fibers and cilia
what drugs disrupt microtubule assembly?
colchicin and antimitotic
What are microfilaments the polymer of?
actin
What are microfilaments uses?
cell motility and muscle contraction
What are intermediete filaments responsible for?
tension bearing (mechanical strength) and keeping the nucleus in place
Where can intermediete filaments be found?
nuclear lamina and epithelial tissue
What quality do microtubules have?
dynamic instability
What are microtubules made of?
protein tubulin
How does the microtubule grow and shrink?
one end attached to centrosome and centriols inside will take off or add peices
What's another name for microfilaments?
actin filaments
What are microfilaments made of?
helical polymers of the protein actin
Where can you find microfilaments?
cortex (just beneath the plasma membrane)
What is actin used for?
component of muscles with myosin
Where are places microtubules are found?
flagella, metaphase of meiosis, axon in nerve cells
How do microtubules grow and shrink?
tubulin molecules add on the + end using GTP, or protofilaments peel away and GDP tubulin is released
What are the most famous motor proteins and where are they used?
dynein and kinesin (nerve cells)
How do dynein and kinesin move?
When carrying cargo they walk on microtubules, dynein to the inside of the cell and kinesin to the outside of the cell
What do motor proteins need for movement?
GTP
What causes flagella movement?
dynein arm (using ATP) moves A microtubule against a B microtubule
How can actin be put together?
globular (G) or fibrous (F)
What are the two types of movement and what are they based on?
muscular (actin and myosin) and nonmuscular (motor proteins and actin independent of myosin)
What protein is involved in flagella movement in prokaryotes?
flaggeline
What is ambeoid movement (also called cell crawling)?
actin grows in one direction pushing the membrane while on the other side actin shrinks and pulls the membrane
WHat is cytoplasmic streaming?
organelles circulating inside the cell (needs ATP)
What do many proteins bind to in order to modify their function?
actin
What does ambeoid movement use?
lameltyiodeum and fillapodia
What motor protein is needed for muscle movement?
myosin
What needs to be present for actin to bind to myosin?
calcium
How does the sliding filament model move?
ATP binds to myosin to move head up, not bound and head goes down
What is extra sugar stored as?
glycogen
What stores oxygen in muscle cells?
(oxy)myoglobin
How can actin be put together?
globular (G) or fibrous (F)
What are the two types of movement and what are they based on?
muscular (actin and myosin) and nonmuscular (motor proteins and actin independent of myosin)
What protein is involved in flagella movement in prokaryotes?
flaggeline
What is ambeoid movement (also called cell crawling)?
actin grows in one direction pushing the membrane while on the other side actin shrinks and pulls the membrane
WHat is cytoplasmic streaming?
organelles circulating inside the cell (needs ATP)
What do many proteins bind to in order to modify their function?
actin
What does ambeoid movement use?
lameltyiodeum and fillapodia
What motor protein is needed for muscle movement?
myosin
What needs to be present for actin to bind to myosin?
calcium
How does the sliding filament model move?
ATP binds to myosin to move head up, not bound and head goes down
What is extra sugar stored as?
glycogen
What stores oxygen in muscle cells?
(oxy)myoglobin
DNA isolated from cow liver cells contains 28% A, what percent will be C?
22%
Which of the following is the correct order of the levels of DNA packaging in eukaryotic chromosomes?
nucleosome --> chromatin fiber --> looped domains --> heterochromatin
What does transformation involve in bacteria?
assimilation of external DNA
Which of the following compounds is not a part of cellular membranes?
ribonucleic acid
Give an example of noncoding DNA
all of the above (pseudogene, intron, simple sequence DNA)
This protein helps unwind double stranded DNA prior to its replication
Helicase
These are composed of repeats of simple sequence DNA and are required to maintain the ends of linear chromosomes
telomeres
At a replication fork, Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand are synthesized?
5' to 3'
A change in a nucleotide sequence that results in addition of deletion of a single nucleotide and largely changes the amino acid sequence of the resulting peptide is known as a?
frameshift mutation
AN individual has been infected with a particular retrovirus. In order for the latent virus DNA to be inherited by subsequent generations stemming from this individual, it must be found
in germ line cells
Which of the following is not associated with mRNA processing in eukaryotes?
removal of exons
The central dogma of retroviruses is most accurately described as
RNA --> DNA -->RNA --> protein
Semi-conservative nature of DNA replication means that
two strands of DNA will be opened and each strand will be replicated to make double stranded DNA
DNA polymerase synthesizes DNA
from 5' to 3' direction
THe short length primer used for DNA polymerase is
a small RNA molecule
DNA polymerase works?
all are correct
Transposable elements are
the mobile non-functioning DNA fragments which may affect neighboring gene function
WHich of the following represents a similarity between RNA and DNA?
nucleotides consisting of a phosphate, sugar, and nitrogen base
RNA differs from DNA in that RNA
contains ribose as its sugar and contains uracil instead of thymine
A particular triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is AGT. The corresponding codon for the mRNA transcribed is
UCA
A particular eukaryotic protein is 300 amino acids long. Which of the following would be the maximum number of nucleotides in the DNA that codes for the amino acids in this protein?
900
If the triplet UUU codes for the amino acid phenylalanine in bacteria, then in plants UUU should code for
phenylalanine
Where is the attachement site for RNA polymerase?
promoter region
Which of the following is not involved in transcription?
initiation factors
Which of the following helps to stabilize mRNA by inhibiting its degredation?
poly(A) tail
What are the coding segments of a stretch of eukaryotic DNA called?
exons
What are ribosomes composed of?
both rRNA and protein
DUring translation, chain elongation continues until what happens?
chain terminator codons occur
If you discovered a bacterial cell that contained no restriction enzymes, which of the following would you expect to happen?
the cell would be easily infected and lysed by baceriophages
Which enzyme was used to produce the molecule in Fig 20.1?
a restriction enzyme
What is the genetic function of restriction enzyme?
cleaves nucleic acid at specific sites
How does a bacterial cell protect its own DNA from restriction enzymes?
by adding methyl groups to adenines and cytosines
WHat two enzymes are needed to produce recombinant DNA?
restriction enzyme, ligase
From the list above, which of the following is the most logical sequence of steps for splicing foreign DNA into a plasmid and inserting the plasmid into a bacterium?
3, 2, 4, 5, 1
Bacteria containing recombinant plasmids are often identified by which process?
exposing the bacteria to an antibiotic that kills the cells lacking the plasmid
All of the following statements about probes are true except?
they must be produced with the same restriction enzyme as the fragments
Andy WIll has cloned a gene that he belives is important in conferring resistance to insects in a certain plant. He now wants to determine where in the genome that gene is physically located. He would most likely use which technique?
in situ hybridization
A gene that contains introns can be made shorter (but remain functional) for genetic engineering purposes by
using reverse transcriptase to reconstruct the gene from its mRNA
Specific DNA fragments of a genomic library are contained in
A and B (recombinant plasmids of bacteria and recombinant viral DNA)
THe polymerase chain reaction is important because it allows us to
make many copies of a targeted segment of DNA
Restriction fragments of DNA are separated from one another by which process?
gel electrophoresis
The Southern BLotting procedure enables the detection and analysis of DNA sequences. THis means that
all of the above are possible using the southern blotting procedure
Why do the heads of phospholipids point out and the tails point to each other?
b and c (the tails are repelled by the aqueous environment and the heads are attracted to the water inside and outside)
Ultimately, all membranes come from
ER and golgi
Which of the following accounts for the fluid aspect of the fluid mosaic model of plasma membranes?
the individual phospholipid molecules are not bonded to each other so movement of certain proteins and lipis is possible within the bilayer
Organisms adapted to extreme cold would probably have more ___ in their membranes
polyunsaturated fat
recognition proteins are most important for
distinguishing foreign cells from "self" cells
In general, which of the following is largely responsible for moving substances across the plasma membrane, communication with other cells and identifying the cell?
proteins
Which of the following may influence the rate of simple diffusion across a differentially permeable membrane?
A and C (differentially permeable membrane and lipid solubility of the molecule)
How does glucose generally enter the cell?
facilitated diffusion
Molecules assisted by carrier proteins may bross a differentially permeable membrane by
facilitated diffusion
The diffucion of water molecules across a differntially permeable membrane is termed
osmosis
A certain cell, such as a nueron, has a high concentration of K+ ions. How can K+ ions continue to enter the cell?
active transport
Inside a "cell" you construct, you place a 1 M salt solution. You place the cell in a 1 M sugar solution. What happens?
water leaves and enters at the same rate
What is active transport?
movement of molecules into or out of a cell against a concentration gradient
Plasma membrane proteins are manufactured at the ___ and carbohydrate chains added to the membrane by ___
ribosomes, golgi complexes
What prevents your immune system from attacking your own cells?
recognition proteins
Transport processes (for example, diffusion and active transport) occur across what membrane?
all of these
Where does the first step in the breakdown of food (hydrolysis) occur?
Outside of the cell or in lysosomes
How are sugar and fatty acids stored?
Sugars are stored as glycogens and fatty acids are stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue
What is the most important fuel molecule and what is the most important storage molecule?
fuel-sugar
storage-fatty acid
Where does glycolysis occur?
in the cytosol
How do yeast get energy?
alcholic fermentation making ethanol
Where does the Kreb's cycle take place?
eukaryotes-mitochondria
prokaryotes-cytosol
What are some redox pairs?
NADH,H and FADH2
What can mitochondria use as fuel?
pyruvate or fatty acids
What is mitochondria similar to?
similar in size and shape to bacteria, reproduce like bacteria
What kind of pathway does ATP Synthase provide?
hydrophilic pathways (reversible)
Where did chemiosmotic coupling first evolve?
bacteria
What does the electron transport chain start with?
a hydride removal from NADH
How does the electron transport chain progress?
to increasing redox potential
Where does the electron transport chain get its electrons?
aerobic-NADH,H and FADH2
photosynthsis-light
bacteria-inorganic substances
How does NADH get to ubiquinone?
by a flavin group and iron-sulfur centers
How is ubiquinone recycled?
in the Q-cycle
What does the cytochrome a-oxidase complex do?
it reduces O2 and holds it in place
What is the central reaction of photosynthesis?
carbon fixation
How are the 2 steps of photosynthesis connected?
feedback mechanisms
What sugar does photosynthesis usually make?
sucrose
What is the chloroplast not permeable to?
ATP and NADH
What structure does chlorophyll have?
alternating single and double bonds
What do photosystems I and II make?
I-NADPH
II-ATP
What else does photosystem II do?
splits water to replace electrons
Where are fat and starch stored in a plant cell?
the stroma
What does the carbon fixation cycle begin and end with?
ribulose 1,5-biphosphate
What is the most prominent organelle?
nucleus
What evolutionary step allowed for bigger cells?
internal membranes
What is another function of chaperone proteins?
quality control of proteins by binding to bad ones keeping them in the ER
What does the peroxisome do?
breaks down lipids and toxins
What kind of transport takes place in the nuclear pores?
both free and active (powered by GTP)
Where is the signal sequence on a protein?
the N-terminus
Proteins going to the nucleus have what type of signal?
nuclear localization siganl made of positively charged lysines and arginines
What property of the signal sequence is very important?
its physical properties
What happens if a protein has no signal sequence?
it stays in the cytosol
What does a stop transfer sequence do?
it anchors a protein into the membrane
How long is a signal sequence?
15-60 amino acids
What happens when a signal sequence binds to a signal recognition particle?
the ribosome slows down
What are signal recognition particles and SRP receptors?
molecular matchmakers
What happens to many proteins in the lumen?
they get glycosylated or disulfide bonds are added
What helps buding during vesicular distribution?
dynamin
What removes a signal sequence?
signal peptidase
What is not removed off of a protein?
start transfer sequence
What do V-snares and T-snares have a central role in?
fusion (how tuberculosis works)
What helps with Clathrin coat?
adaptins
What does the golgi use for sorting and packaging?
transport vesicles with distincive protein coats
What is the default pathway for secretion?
constitutive secretion
Where can regulated secretion occur?
only in cells specialzed for secretion
What transports molecules around the golgi and from the ER to the golgi?
COP coated vesicles
What is the golgi made up of?
cisternae
What is there a correlation between in the golgi?
the position of the enzyme in the processing chain of events and its place on the golgi stack
What allows secretory proteins to be packed into vesicles at high concentrations?
selective aggregation
What does the cis golgi side tag enzymes with?
mannose-6-phosphate
What is the most short range type of signalling?
contact dependent
What does the endocrine system send its through?
bloodstream or sap
Which type of siganlling is long distance and specific?
neuronal
What causes the release of a neurotransmitter?
a chemical, physical, or electrical pulse
What is NO?
a intracellular local mediator is made from arginine and stimulates the formation of cGTP
What do integrating proteins do?
convert several signals to a single message
What can extracellular receptors be mediated by?
Ca2+ binding proteins (ex. calmodulin that makes CAM kinases)
What is the simplest type of extracellular receptor?
ion channel linked
Where is ion channel linked found?
in the nervous system
What has the largest family of receptors?
G protein linked
What type of protein are G protein linked?
7-pass transmembrane receptor proteins
What type of recpetor is rhodopsin?
G protein linked
What does enzyme linked receptors release?
small molecules into the cytosol
Which receptor can act at low concentrations?
enzyme linked
What do the 2 recpetors in enzyme linked do to eachother?
phosphorylate
What type of receptor is serine/threonine kinase?
enzyme linked
Where is GTPase?
on the alpha subunit of the G protein
What happens as a signal is bound to the beta and gamma subunits longer?
the response increases
What are the target proteins for G proteins?
ion channel or membrane bound enzyme
What makes cAMP?
adenylyl cyclase (converted back by phosophodiesterase)
What does cAMP activate?
cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA)
What does phospholipase C do?
cleaves inositol phospholipid into IP3 and DAG (DAG and CA2+ activate protein kinase C)
What id intracellular signalling capable of, and what does it behave as?
capable of regulating gene trascription and it behaves as a molecular switch
Phosphorylation (intracellular signalling type) is activated and deactivated by what?
activated by kinase and dectivated by phosphatase
How did cell to cell signalling evolve in plants and animals?
independently
What ripens?
ethylene
What do cytokine receptors do?
activate different STATs
What does tyrosine kinase activate?
Ras (in cancer)
What is the most durable part of the cytoskeleton?
intermediete filament
What stabilizes the intermediete filament?
accessory proteins like plectin
What keeps the ER and golgi in the right place?
microtubules
Which parts are polar?
microtubules and microfilaments
What antimitotic drug prevents the polymerization of tubulin and thus stops mitosis?
colchicin
What drugs are used in cancer treatments?
antimititic
How are cilia and flagella moved and what is their structure?
moved by dynein and theyre in a 9+2 array
How are the alpha and beta pieces of microtubules put together?
noncovalent bonds
What is the cause of the dynamic instability?
its intrinsic capability to hydrolyze GTP
How can microfilaments grow?
at either end, but faster on the + end
How are microfilaments disassembled?
nucleotide hydrolysis
What does the function of actin depend on?
the ratio of filaments to monomers
What regulates actin polymerization?
thymosin and profilin
What helps rearrange the actin cytoskeleton?
Pho protein family
On tubulin molecules which is the + and the - end?
+ is beta and - is alpha
What happens when tubulin molecules add too fast?
a GTP cap is made
Where does tubulin growth start from?
at the y tubulin or nucleation site
What family do actin dependent motor proteins belong to?
myosin family
What is dynein related to and which way does it move? Kinesin?
dynein-golgi, to - end
kinesin-ER, to + end
What type of myosin is muscle related?
myosin II (with 2 ATPase heads)
How can Ca2+ be released?
If an electrical excitation goes through the tranverse tubules to the sarcoplasmic reticulum
What does cell crawling depend on?
actin
How are the actin and myosin filaments arranged in the sarcomere?
myosin is centrally placed and acin extends inward
Where are the sarcomeres?
in the myofibril
How do the lamelilipodia and filapodia stick to a surface?
integrins