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19 Cards in this Set

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Ribosomes
A ribosome is a small, dense, functional structure found in all known cells that assembles proteins.
Cytoplasm
the organized complex of inorganic and organic substances external to the nuclear membrane of a cell and including the cytosol and membrane-bound organelles (as mitochondria or chloroplasts [in plants])
Free Ribosomes
"free" to move about anywhere in the cytoplasm (within the cell membrane). Proteins made by free ribosomes are used within the cell. Proteins containing disulfide bonds using cysteine amino acids cannot be produced outside of the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Mitochondrion
any of various round or long cellular organelles of most eukaryotes that are found outside the nucleus, produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes -- called also chondriosome
Plasma Membrane
semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm consisting of a fluid phospholipid bilayer with intercalated proteins
Golgi Apparatus
a cytoplasmic organelle that consists of a stack of smooth membranous saccules and associated vesicles and that is active in the modification and transport of proteins; also called Golgi Complex
Rought Endoplasmic Reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum that is studded with ribosomes
Nucleus
a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes make up the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression.
Nucear Pores
allow the transport of water-soluble molecules across the nuclear envelope. This transport includes RNA and ribosomes moving from nucleus to the cytoplasm and proteins (such as DNA polymerase and lamins), carbohydrates, signal molecules and lipids moving into the nucleus.
Nucleolus
a "sub-organelle" of the cell nucleus, which itself is an organelle. A main function of the nucleolus is the production and assembly of ribosome components. The nucleolus is roughly spherical, and is surrounded by a layer of condensed chromatin. No membrane separates the nucleolus from the nucleoplasm.
Chromatin
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes. In eukaryotes chromatin is found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, while in prokaryotes, the chromatin is held within the nucleoid.[1] The nucleic acids are in the form of double-stranded DNA (a double helix). The major proteins involved in chromatin are histone proteins, although many other chromosomal proteins have prominent roles too. The functions of chromatin are to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, to strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to serve as a mechanism to control expression. Changes in chromatin structure are affected mainly by methylation (DNA and proteins) and acetylation (proteins). Chromatin structure is also relevant to DNA replication and DNA repair.
Nuclear Envelope
the double membrane of the nucleus that encloses genetic material in eukaryotic cells. It separates the contents of the nucleus (DNA in particular) from the cytosol. Numerous nuclear pores are present on the nuclear envelope to facilitate and regulate the exchange of materials (for example, proteins and RNA) between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The space between the two membranes that make up the nuclear envelope is called the perinuclear space (also called the perinuclear cisterna), and is usually about 20 - 40 nm wide. Each of the two membranes is composed of a lipid bilayer. The outer membrane is continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
smooth area of endoplasmic reticulum, where ribosomes do not attach for the synthesis of proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum
a membranous system of interconnected tubules and flattened sacs called cisternae, the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the nuclear envelope. The membrane of the ER encloses a compartment called the cisternal space (TEM).
cytosol
the internal fluid of the cell, and a portion of cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways and glycolysis. They also act as intracellular receptors and form part of the ribosomes, enabling protein synthesis.
respiration
the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell to obtain biochemical energy from fuel molecules. Energy is released by the oxidation of fuel molecules and is stored as "high-energy" carriers. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions (generate ATP; anabolic consumes ATP) in metabolism.
lysosome
digest materials taken into the cell and also recycle materials from intracellular refuse
phagocytosis
the process by which the cell absorbs nutrients or food for sustenance. The cell encloses food in a membrane vacuole that is then met by lysosomes, which break down carbohydrates and amino acids into monomers that can pass through the lysosomal membrane and be consumed in the cytosol or nucleus.
peroxisomes
ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that participate in the metabolism of fatty acids and other metabolites. Peroxisomes have enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides. They have a single lipid bilayer membrane that separates their contents from the cytosol (the internal fluid of the cell) and contain membrane proteins critical for various functions, such as importing proteins into the organelles and aiding in proliferation. Like lysosomes, peroxisomes are part of the secretory pathway of a cell, but they a much more dynamic and can replicate by enlarging and then dividing.