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53 Cards in this Set

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What is the vitreous body composed primarily up of?
Loose Collagen Fibers

Hyaluronic Acid
The vitreous is produced by ? which is thought to be a tissue ?
Hyalocytes

thought to be a tissue Macrophage
What is the Inner Limiting Membrane?
expanded inner processes of Muller's Cells and their Basal Lamina.
What are Muller's Cells?
Supporting (neuroglial) cells

modified astrocytes
What is in the Inner Plexiform Layer
Bipolar Cell Axons

Synaptic ribbons in Bipolar presynaptic ending

Dendrites of Ganglion Cells

processes of Amacrine Cells and Synapses
What is in the Inner Nuclear Layer composed of?
Nuclei of

Bipolar
Horizontal
Amacrine
Muller's
What is in the Outer Plexiform layer?
process of Rod and Cone cells
(spherules and pedicles)

synapsing with Bipolar Dendrites


Synaptic Ribbons (structures associated with controlled release of neurotransmitter granules) are present
What is in the Outer Nuclear Layer?
Rod and Cone nuclei and cell bodies
What is in the Outer Limiting Membrane?
junctional complexes of Muller's and Photoreceptor Cells
What are Retinal Pigment Epithelium?
contain Melanin

form TIGHT JUNCTIONS that make BLOOD-RETINA BARRIER

they phagocytose the Rod and Cone Membranes

process VITAMIN A and pump Ions
Retinal Detachment usually occurs when ? separate from the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM --depriving the rods and cones of nourishment
Rods and Cones --separate from the retinal pigment epithelium
What part of Rods and Cones contain numerous Mitochondria, RER and some glycogen?
Inner Segment
The ? part of Rods and Cones that extends from the Basal Body is a modified ? that is lacking the central Microtubular pair in its microtubule arrangement.
Outer segment


modified CILIUM
True or False

The OUTER SEGMENT of rods and cones consists of membrane folded to form disks. The older disks are shed and phagocytosed by the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.
True
The periphery of the Retina consists of ? only.
Rods


(there are more rods than cones)
Rods are sensitive to low light levels and contain the visual pigment ?

Where are they found in the Rods?
RHODOPSIN (retinal + rod opsin)



Outer Segment
Cones are of 3 kinds sensitive to RED , GREEN, and BLUE light. They contain the visual pigment ?
IODOPSIN

(retinal + 1 of 3 cone opsins)
What is Convergence?

How is this observed in the eye?
many units synapsing to a single unit

Anterior margin of the Retina -- number of Rods synapse with a single Bipolar Neuron

number of Bipolar neurons synapse with a single Ganglion cell
What is the depressed center of the Macula Lutea called?

What does that structure consists of?
Fovea Centralis

consists of CONES
Describe the synapses found at the Macula Lutea
1:1:1 innervation

One Cone synapse with One Bipolar Neuron synapse with One Ganglion cell
What are the two sources of Blood supply for the retina?
Inner Vessels --by way of the optic nerves


Capillaries of the Choroid --by way of diffusion (they provide nourishment for Rods and Cones)
Inner vessels of the eye--

Arterioles can be found in what layer?

Capillaries can be found in what layer?

Venules can be found in what layer?
arterioles => NERVE FIBER LAYER


capillaries => INNER NUCLEAR LAYER


venules => INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER
True or False

The Outer Plexiform and Outer nuclear Layers are VESSEL-FREE ZONES.
True
The Choroid is the middle vascular layer of the eye and have a CHORIOCAPILLARY level that have flattened vascular channels that are lined with ?

Why is this important?
Fenestrated Endothelium


allows for nutrients to diffuse out into the outer retinal layers and supply rods and cones.
What part of the Choroid contains elastic fibers and Melanocytes?
Suprachoroid (epichoroid)
The Ciliary muscle is firmly anchored anteriorly to the ?

Posteriorly it is free to pull on the ?
Sclera


Choroid
A double layer of cuboidal epithelium covers the Ciliary Body and is continuous with what layer?
Retinal Layer

(inner layer of the eye)
? produces Aqueous Humor and the Zonule Fibers (suspensory ligament of the lens).

Describe their cell structure
Epithelium of the Ciliary Processes

TIGHT JUNCTIONS to form blood/aqueous barrier
plasma membrane infolding
N+ / K+ ATPase
What is the Uvea?
Vascular layer made up of --

choroid

stroma of the Ciliary Body and Iris
What type of barrier do Ciliary Epithelial cells have that form the Blood-Aqueous Barrier?
Tight Junctions
The number of ? found in the stroma of the Iris is a factor in eye color.
Melanocytes
The dilator and sphincter muscles are smooth muscle (MYOEPITHELIUM) that are derived from ?
Pigment Epithelium
The double layer of epithelium on the psoterior surface of the iris is continuous with the double layer of ?

**NOTE: ONLY ON THE IRIS ARE BOTH LAYERS OF EPITHELIUM PIGMENTED!!
Ciliary Body Epithelium
True or False

The anterior surface of the Iris has a double layer epithelial covering.
FALSE

the anterior surface of the iris LACKS an epithelial covering but has stromal cells facing the anterior chamber
Describe the process of Accommodation for Focusing for FAR vision
lens is flattened by being pulled on by the fibers of the CILIARY ZONULE (attached to choroid)

ciliary muscle is relaxed
Describe the process of Accommodation for Focusing for NEAR vision
ciliary muscle contracts

=> pulls on Choroid

=> relieves tension off CILIARY ZONULE

=> lens assumes a more globoid shape

=> sphincter of the iris CONTRACTS
What is formed at the exit of the optic nerve?

(--region of sclera that contains the openings)
Lamina Cribrosa
What is Conjunctiva?
type of epithelium that covers the anterior aspect of the Sclera and lines the inner portion of the eyelid
Where does the major bending of light take place at in the Cornea?

Does the cornea have any vessels or nerves?
Air-Corneal interface


There are NO vessels

ONLY free nerve endings
How does the cornea epithelium retain a layer of fluid/tears ?
surface epithelium have VERMIFORM ridges
The nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium basement membrane of the cornea is called?

When damaged can it regenerate?
Bowman's Membrane (anterior basement)


IT CANNOT regenerate

(Decemet's membrane CAN regenerate)
What helps contribute to the TRANSPARENCY of the cornea?

What produces the collagen fibrils?
Substantia propria (stroma)

layers of collagen fibrils are at RIGHT ANGLES to each other


Corneal Fibroblast (keratocytes)
The thick basement membrane of the Inner Epithelium (Corneal ENDOTHELIUM)

--usually penetrating objects are often stopped by this membrane found in the Cornea

When damaged can it regenerate?
Descemet's membrane

(Posterior Basement Membrane)

YES it can regenerate
What is Corneal (descemet's) endothelium?

What are its functions?
NOT THE SAME AS VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM

--just simple squamous epithelium

allows METABOLIC EXCHANGE between Aqueous Humor and Cornea

helps keep the stroma relatively dehydrated!! (if not vision can be blocked)
The capsule of the lens serves as an anchor to the ? and has ? type of Collagen.
Zonule Fibers

has Collagen Type IV
The ANTERIOR EPITHELIUM of the lens is a single layer of ? cells that form new lens fibers at the equator. The lens slowly increases in size throughout life.
single layer of CUBOIDAL cells
How are Lens cells connected to one another?
Gap Junctions
Describe how Aqueous Humor is drained away.
absorbed into Venous Blood by way of the TRABECULAR MESHWORK across an ENDOTHELIUM into the CANAL OF SCHLEMM
What makes up the Optic Nerve?
axons of Ganglion Cells

covered with Meninges

has GLIAL CELLS
When are axons of Ganglion cells myelinated in the Optic Nerve?
axons become myelinated after leaving the eye at the Lamina Cribrosa
In the Optic Nerve--

What cell would be producing Myelin?
Oligodendrocytes


NOT SCHWANN CELLS
What are Tarsal Glands (meibomian glands) ?

(found in the eyelid)
SEBACEOUS GLANDS

They secrete MEIBUM --oily substance that prevents the evaporation of the eye's tear film
True or False

GOBLET CELLS found in the eye are located in the CONJUNCTIVA which help contribute to tear formation
True