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34 Cards in this Set

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Describe the duct system of the pancreas of the EXOCRINE portion.
CENTROACINAR CELLS --mark the beginning of the duct system

INTERCALATED DUCTS --drain the exocrine acinus beginning at the centroacinar cells to join intralobular ducts

Intralobular ducts --made up of columnar mucus secreting cells
True or False

There are STRIATED DUCTS in the pancreas
FALSE

NO striated ducts are found in the pancreas
Acinar cells of the pancreas produce ?
inactive enzymes (zymogens/proenzymes)
What activates the enzymes that are secreted into the small intestines?
Enterokinases of the intestinal brush border GLYCOCALYX

activate the enzymes
Pancreatic duct cells produce ?

How is it secreted?
HCO3-

apical Cl / HCO3 Exchanger
(utilizes Cl- gradient from CFTR channel)
PANCREATIC ACINAR CELLS secrete constitutively at low levels and have receptors to ? and ? which can cause marked increase in release and production of enzymes.
CCK

ACh
? is the main stimulus for the duct cells of the pancreas to produce their watery HCO3- secretions
Secretin
Endocrine cells / patches in the pancreas are known as ?

What types are there?

What are their functions?
Islets of Langerhans

A cells => glucagon

B cells => insulin

D cells => somatostatin

F cells => pancreatic polypeptide
A cells, B cells, D cells, and F cells of the pancreas are found in the ISLET of Langerhans.

What is the general location of the A cell?

B cell?

D cells?
A cell = peripheral of the islet


B cell = centerally of the islet


D cells = peripheral of the islet
What type of junctions are found between islets cells help transmit signals from cell to cell?
Gap junctions
? capillaries perfuse islets and then perfuse adjacent acinar cells forming a mini-portal system in the pancreas.
Fenestrated
list the sequence of cells that are perfused by fenestrated capillaries of the Islets of Langerhans
central B cells (first)

outer A cells and D cells (second)
Bile canaliculi are formed by facing surfaces of adjacent hepatocytes and are sealed by ?


(test question)
Tight Junctions
List the organization system of the Biliary system

Start --> Bile Canaliculi

End --> Common bile duct
canliculi --> bile ductules --> small bile ducts --> large hepatic duct


=> cystic + hepatic => common bile duct
Sinusoids that lead from the portal areas between hepatocytes to the central veins are lined with ? and local areas of fenestrations called ?
Discontinuous Endothelium and
local areas of fenestrations (SIEVE PLATES)
What is the function of Kupffer Cells found in the sinusoids of the liver?
Break down old RBC
Beneath the endothelium of the sinusoids in the liver is the ? space.

What cells can be found here?
Perisinusoidal space of Disse


Fat-storing STELLATE (ito) cells
What zone is closest to the terminal hepatic venule (central vein) and has the least oxygenation?
Zone 3
The portion of the hepatocyte that is facing the ? is defined as 'apical' and is the site of secretion of bile.
Canaliculus
The portion facing the ? space is defined as 'basolateral' and is the site of uptake of materials from blood.
Sinusoidal Space
The large volume of smooth ER in the hepatocytes is used for what 4 thing?
glycogen (synthesis and degradation)

bilirubin conjugation

phase I detoxification (BIOTRANSFORMATION)

phase II detoxification (CONJUGATION REACTION)
What is PHASE I detoxification (biotransformation) ?
detoxification of a wide variety of substances

site of the CYTOCHROME P450 system for oxidation/reduction reactions
What is PHASE II detoxification (conjugation reaction) ?
detoxification occurs in smooth ER as well as other cellular locations
? are numerous in Hepatocytes and are used in oxidation of excess fatty acids.
Peroxisomes
microvilli of hepatocytes face the ? resulting in extensive surface area for exchange of materials with the blood.
Perisinusoidal Space of Disse
Describe the structure of Bile Canaliculi.
canaliculi course between hepatocytes

walls of the canaliculi are made up of HEPATOCYTES plasma membrane that are SEALED off by TIGHT JUNCTIONS
Hepatic Stellate Cells (Ito cells) store ? , ? , and function as ? when stimulated by inflammatory cytokines.

They are found in the ? space adjacent to hepatocytes.
store FAT and VITAMIN A

function as FIBROBLASTS/MYOFIBROBLASTS (cause the fibrosis seen in liver and scar tissue)

found in PERISINUSOIDAL SPACE
What cell is a member of the monocyte/macrophage family help form the lining of sinusoids and participate in filtering the blood and act as APC?
Kupffer Cells
Endothelial cells of the liver form the ? sinusoidal lining.
Discontinuous
The RER that is present in Hepatocytes are used for the production of ?

ex: ?
blood proteins

Albumin, coagulation factors, acute phase proteins
Hepatocyte regeneration are down by local stem cells found in ? areas. This is the reason why the liver can regenerate quite well.
Portal Area

(zone 1 = well nourished)
The gallbladder has apical ? that allow for pumps and channels to create gradients necessary to concentrate the bile.
Tight Junctions
True or False

The gallbladder has a true muscularis mucosae and submucosa.
False

there is no true muscularis mucosae or submucosa

The LAMINA PROPRIA (loose CT) rests directly on muscularis propria
List the layers of the Gallbladder
Mucosa
-lamina prpria

Muscularis

Adventitia is covered by SEROSA on peritoneal surfaces