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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
classified according to their chemical structure
How are hormones classified?
Thyroxine (T4)
Tiiodothyronine (T3)
Which class of amine hormone is lipid-soluble?
as dissolved particles
How does insulin travel through the blood?
Are catecholamines water or lipid soluble?
Steroid hormones are all derived from this cell membrane molecule: ________.
Are steroid hormones stored for long periods of time like insulin and TH?
The control of the thyroid gland secretion by the ant. pit. is an example of ________ control.
Adrenal hormone - E & NE
What class of hormones in the body is primarily under neural control?
Up regulation
Down regulation
What are the 2 ways in which the chemical message of a hormone is converted into a cell response inside the cell?
1. contraction
2. secretion
3. transport
4. synthesis
5. breakdown of storage molecules
List the 5 ways in which cells respond to activation by hormones.
plasma membrane
Receptors of water soluble hormones are found on the _______ __________ of target cells, while receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are found in the _______ or _______ of cells.
All cells have receptors for all hormones.

____________ is the process whereby a single hormone can elicit the response of many second messengers within single target cell.
a. glucose
b. A.A.
c. GIP
d. parasympathetic fibers
List the main stimuli for insulin secretion. (4)
It dissolves in the blood plasma, because it's water soluble.
How is insulin transport through the blood?
What are the 2 major functions of insulin?
Type 1 (juvenile)
Type 2 (adult)
______ diabetes is characterized by insulin absence or deficiency, while ______ diabetes is caused by resistance of target cells to the action of insulin.
What are the 2 major functions of insulin?
Type 1 (juvenile)
Type 2 (adult)
______ diabetes is characterized by insulin absence or deficiency, while ______ diabetes is caused by resistance of target cells to the action of insulin.
Hypothalamic-pituitary portal system
What is the name of the specialized capillary system that connects the ventral hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?
tropic hormone
A hormone that regulates the function of another endocrine system
What are the major tropic hormones of the ant. pit?
TSH - thyroid
FSH - gonads
LH - gonads
ACTH - adrenal cortex
GH - growth metabolism
PRL - breast development & lactation
What are the target cells of each of these ant. pit. hormones?
It would decrease the secretion of CRH and ACTH
High level of cortisol due to injections of cortisone will have what effect on the secretion of CRH and ACTH?
Lack of TSH would lead to a _________ in TH.
negative feedback
In general hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are maintained by a _________ __________ mechanism.
all of the above
Which of the following would not influence the endocrine system via the hypothalamus?

a. strong emotions
b. bright lights
c. painful stimuli
d. infections
e. all of the above are influenced by endocrine system via the hypothalamus
TH binds with plasma membrane receptors.

functions of TH
↑ basal metabolic rate
regulates metabolism
essential for secretion of GH, and for action of IGFs on target tissues.

essential for normal development and function of the nervous system

amplifies activity of SNS by up-regulating receptors for E and NE
The stress response involves only the endocrine system.

1. exposure to temp. extremes
2. heavy exercise
3. fright
4. surgery
5. emotional stresses - happy or sad
List 5 stressors.
rapid responses to stressful stimuli
↑ cardiac output
↑ in B.P.
↑ ventilation
the fight or flight response
prolonged responses to stressful stimuli
release of A.A. by skeletal muscle
gluconeogenesis in the liver
inhibition of the immune system
What is the main stimulus for secretion of adrenal medulla hormones
maintains blood volume & pressure & vasoconstriction
How do ADH and aldosterone aid in the stress response?
symptoms of hypersecretion or epinephrine
High B.P.
High blood glucose
Rapid heart rate
excessive sweating
binds to carrier proteins
only free homone can leave bloodstream & act on target cells
half life is longer
How is cortisol transported in the blood, what effects does this have on its half life?
plasma membrane & intercellular receptors
where are cortisol receptors found in cells?
symptoms of hypersecretion
redistribution of body fat to places like face and back of neck

Elevated BP
Overly susceptible to infections
Inhibition of the inflammatory response
symptoms of hyposecretion
Bronzed skin
Salt cravings due to hypoatremia