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45 Cards in this Set

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the study of the bioevolutionary bases of behavior and development
ethology
an evolutionary process, proposed by CHarles Darwin, stating that individuals with characteristics that promote adaption to the enviornment will survive, reproduce, and pass these adaptive characteristics to offspring; those lacking these adaptive characteristics will eventually die out
natural selection
period of time that is optimal for the development of particular capacities, or behaviors, and in which the individual is particularly sensitive to environmental inlfuences that would foster these attributes
sensitive period
a selfless concern for the welfare of others that is expressed through prosocial acts such as sharing, cooperating, comforting others, or helping
altruism
the ability to experience the same emotions that someone else is experiencing
empathy
the scientific study of how genotupe interacts with enviornment to determine behavioral attributes such as intelligence, personality, and mental health
behavior genetics
the genetic endowment that an individual inherits
genotype
the ways in which a person's phenotype is expressed in observable or measurable characteristics
phenotype
the amoung of variability in a trait that is attributable to hereditary factors
heritability
a mothod of studying genetic influences by determining whether traits can be bred in animals through selective mating
selective breeding experiment
the extent to which two individuals have genes in common
kinship
study in which sets of twins that differ in zygosity (kinship) are compared to determine the heritability of an attribute
twin design
study in which adoptees are compared with their biological relatives and their adoptive relatives to estimate the heritability of an attribute
adoption design
the percentage of cases in which a particular attribute is present for one member of a twin pair if it is present for the other
concordance rate
a numerical estimate, ranging from .00 to +1.00, of the amount of variation in an attribute that is due to hereditary factors
heritability coefficient
an environmental influence that people living together do not share and that should makethese individuals different from one another
nonshared environmental influence (NSE)
an environmental influence that people living together share and that should make these individuals similar to one another
shared environmental influence (SE)
the opposite poles of a personality dimension: Introverts are shy, snxious around others, and tend to withdraw from social situations; extroverts are highly sociable and enjoy being with others
introversion/extroversion
a measure of the extent to which an individual recognizes the needs of otehrs and is concerned about their welfare
empathic concern
a serious form of mental illness characterized by disturbances in logical thinking, emotional expression, and interpersonal behavior
schizophrenia
the notion that the rearing environments that biological paretns provide are influence by the parents' own genes, and hence are correlated with the child's own genotype
passive genotype/environment correlations
the notion that our heritable attributes afect others' behavior toward us and thus influence the social environment in which development takes place
evocative genotype/environment correlations
the notion that our genotypes affect the types of environments that we prefer and seek out
active genotype/environment correlations
Bronfenbrenner's model emphasizing that the developing person is embedded in a series of enviornmental systems that interact with one another and with the person to influence development (sometimes called bioecolgical theory)
ecological systems theory
the immediate settings (including role relationships and activities) that the person actually encounters; the innermost of Bronfenbrenner's environmental layers, or contexts
microsystem
the interconnections among an individual's immediate settings, or microsystes; the second of Bronfenbrenner's enviornmental layers, or contexts
mesosystem
social systems that children and adolescents do not directly experience but that may nonetheless influence their development; the third of Bronfenbrenner's enviornmental layers, or contexts
exosystem
the larger cultural or subcultural context in which development occurs; Bronfenbrenner's outermost enviornmental layer, or context
macrosystem
in ecological systems theory, changes in the individual or the enviornment that occur over time and influence the direction development takes
chronosystem
Vygotsky's perspective on development, in which children acquire their culture's values, beliefts, and problem solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more knowledgable members of society
sociocultural theory
vygotsky's term for methods of thinking and problem-solving strategies that children internalize from their interactions with more competent members of society
tools of intellectual adaption
process of learning or acquiring new skills that occurs as novices particpate in activites under the guidance of a more skillful tutor
collaborative (guided) learning
vygotsky's term from the range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skillful partner
zone of proximinal development
process by which an expert, when instructing a novice, responds contingently to the novice's behavior in a learning situation, so that the novice gradually increases his or her understanding of a problem
scaffolding
vygotsky's term for the subset of a child's verbal utterances that serve a self-communicative function and guide the child's activities
private speech
internalized private speech; covert verbal thought
inner speech
social-cognitive theory stating that the explanations we construct for social experiences largely determine how we react to those experiences
social information-processing (or attribution) theory
conclustions drawn about the underlying causes of our own or another person's beahvior
causal attributions
a dispositional characteristic that is stable over time and across situation
trait
attributional heuristic implying that actions that a person consistently performs are likely to be internally caused (reflecting a dispositional characteristic)
consistency schema
view of children as passive entities whose developmental paths are primarily dteremined by external (environmental) influences
mechanistic model
view of children as active entities whose developmental paths are primarily determines by forces from within themselves
organismic model
view of children as active entities whose developmental paths represent a continuous, dynamic interplay between internal foces (nature) and external influences (nurture)
contextual model
a unifies view of the developmental process that emphasizes the interrelationships among the phsycial/biological, mental, social, and emotional aspects of human development
holistic persepctive
those who borrow from many theories in their attempts to predict and explain human development
eclectics