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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is phonological knowledge?
a speaker's competence about the sound system of the lang
What does competence refer to?
a speaker's tacit or covert knowledge while performance refers to a speaker's overt knowledge
What are the 3 general components of assmnt of phonological knowledge?
1. breadth of distribution of sounds
2. phonological rules
3. nature of lexical representations
What falls under Breadth of distribution of sounds?
1.
2.
3.
1. phonetic inventory
2. phonemic inventory
3. distribution of sounds in phonemic inventory
What is Phonetic Inventory?
noting & listing all sounds child produces whether they are used correctly or not
What is Phonemic Inventory?
noting & listing all sounds that are used contrastively
What is Distribution of sounds in phonemic inventory?
analysis of target sounds by a) word position, (i.e, does sound occur in all word positions or just some?)
b. analysis of target sounds by morphemes (i.e, are sounds used contrastively in all or just some morphemes)
What 3 constraints fall under static rules?
-inventory constraints
-positional constraints
-sequence constraints
What are the 2 rules that fall under dynamic rules?
-allophonic rules
-neutralization
How many different types of phonological knowledge exist?
6 types
What is type 1 phon knowl?
adult-like lexical representation for all targets in all word positions/morphemes, no phonological rules are present
What type of knowledge do most children have?
Type 1 knowledge of nasals and glides
Type 1: adult-like lexical representation for all targets in word positions/____, NO ____ rules are present.
morphemes, phonlogical
What is type 2 phonol knowledge?
adult-like lexican representation for all targets in all word positions/morphemes. However, some functional phonological rules may be operating & rules may be optional or obligatory
Type 2: adult-like lexical representation for all targets in all word positions/morphemes. H/e, some ____ phonol rules may be operating & rules may be ____ or obligatory.
functional, optioanl
What is type 3 phonol knowledge?
adult-like lexical representation for all targets in all word positions but only for some morphemes. Contain 'fossilized' forms, (ie, forms that were produced incorrectly early on & are now resistive to change)
Type 3: adult-like lexical rep for all targets in all word positions but only for some ____. Contain ____ forms. (ie, forms that were produced ___ early on and are now resistive to change)
some, fossilized, incorrectly
What type of phonol knowl contains fossilized forms?
Type 3
What is type 4 of phon knowledge?
adult-like lexical rep in some word positions for all target sounds/morphemes. Type 4 is signaled by presence of positional constraints. Irreg sound prod are noted but only in certain word positions.
Type 4: adult-like lexical rep in ___ word positions for ___ target/morphemes. Type 4 is signaled by presence of ____ constraints. ____ sounds are noted but only in certain word positions.
some, all, positional, irregular
In what type of phon knowledge are irregular sound productions noted but only in certain word positions.
Type 4
What is type 5 of phon knowledge?
adult-like rep in some word positons for some target phonemes. Presence of both fossilized forms and positional constraints
Type 5: adult-like rep in ___ word positions for some target ____. Presence of both ___forms and ____ constraints.
some, morphemes, fossilized, positional
What is type 6 of phonol knowledge?
nonadult-like lexical rep in all word positions for all target morphemes. Presence of inventory constraints
Type 6: ___ lexical rep in all word positions for ___ target morphemes. Presence of ____ constraints.
nonadult-like, all, inventory
What is the hierarchy of phonological knowledge?
Type 6 represents LEAST phonol knowl, type 1 represents MOST phonol knowl
T/F, each sound class or subcategory w/in a class cannot be ranked in terms of phonological knowledge.
False (ex. child may have type 1 knowledge of nasals & glides but type 6 knowl of fricatives)
Is independent analysis non-relational, T/F?
True, at least initially (same as non-correspondance)
What are the steps involved in independent analysis (assmnt of phon knowledge)? acronym
-PI
-PI
-L
-D
-R
-S
-P
What are the steps involved in Independent analysis (assmnt of phonol knowledge)?
-phonetic inventory
-phonemic inventory
-look for presence of phonol rules
-determine type of phonol knowledge for a given sound, sound class, or for the phon knowl on a continuum
-rank childs phonol knowledge on a continuum
-select target sounds for tx & order of tx
-predict generalizations patterns
What does use of generative/independent analysis to assess phonl knowledge require?
Lage data set- at least 300+ items w/specific types of productions
In the use of gen/ind anlaysis to assess phon knowledge, what is the goal?
describe child's lnag, what does child produce? how do the sound funciton? What does child KNOW about lang? (ie. what is their phonol knowledge)?
What is the procedure when using gen/ind analysis to asses phonl knowledge?
I. obtain a rep sample
II. estab levels of phonol knowledge by considering some factors
III. det types of knowledge
IV. rank child's phonol knowl
V. select target for therapy
VI. select order of tx
VII. predict chil's generalization patterns
What is included when obtaining a rep sample?
speech sample includes spont conversational speech & elicited single words
-sampling all target Eng. sounds in all word positons & in more than one word. Also sample each item more than once.
-provide opp for child to prod minimal & near minimal pairs as well as morphophonemic alterations
What should be considered when estab levels of phon knowl?
-breadth of dist of sounds, phonetic & phonemic inv, & distribution of sounds across word positions & morphems
-presence & application of phonological rules
-nature of lexical rep-are they adult-like or non adult like
Use of gen/ind analysis:
III.Determine types of ___ present for a given ___, sound class, or or overall sound ____.
knowledge, sound, system
IV. Use of gen/ind anal:
Rank child's phonol knowledge from ___ to___.
most to least
Use of gen/ind anal:
V. select targets for therapy based on child's ___ ___.
phonological knowledge
Use of gen/ind anal:
VI. select order of tx from ___ to ___ or ___ to ___ knowledge.
most to least, least to most
Use of gen/ind anal:
VII. Predict child's ____ patterns depending on his/her phonol knowledge & order of ____.
generalization, intervention
What has research shown in regards to choosing a tx target?
choosing tx targets for which client has least phonol knowl results in the greatest generalizations & change in cleint's phonol syst.
Research has shown that choosing tx targets for which client has ___ phon knowl results in the ___ generalization & change in client's ___ system.
least, greatest, phonological