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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The two main classes of IGPs are
distance vector and link-state
A link-state routing algorithm maintains...
maintains full knowledge of distant routers and how they interconnect
distance vector algorithms provide...
provide nonspecific information about distant networks and no knowledge of distant routers.
There are many distance vector routing protocols in use today such as:
RIP v2, IGRP, and the hybrid routing protocol EIGRP
As networks have grown larger and more complex...
..the limitations of distance vector routing protocols have become apparent
Routers that use a distance vector routing protocol learn about the network topology from
the routing table updates of neighbor routers.
Bandwidth usage is high because of
the periodic exchange of routing updates, and network convergence is slow which results in poor routing decisions.
Link-state protocols flood route information which allows..
which allows every router to have a complete view of the network topology
Triggered updates allow...
allow efficient use of bandwidth and faster convergence
Changes in the state of a link are sent...
sent to all routers in the network as soon as the change occurs
OSPF is based on open standards, which means
can be developed and improved by multiple vendors.
Link-state routing protocols collect route information from all other routers in the network or within a defined area of the network. Once all of the information is collected
each router calculates the best paths to all destinations in the network
Since each router maintains its own view of the network,
it is less likely to propagate incorrect information provided by any of its neighboring routers
The following are some link-state routing protocol functions:
- Respond quickly to network changes
- Send triggered updates only when a network change has occurred
- Send periodic updates known as link-state refreshes
- Use a hello mechanism to determine the reachability of neighbors
Each router multicasts hello packets to keep track of
to keep track of the state of the neighbor routers
Why each router uses LSAs?
to keep track of all the routers in its area of the network.
What kind of information is contained in the hello packets?
the networks that are attached to the router
What kind of features have Routers that use link-state routing protocols?
- Use the hello information and LSAs received from other routers to build a database about the network
- Use the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest route to each network
- Store the route information in the routing table
Why were Link-state routing protocols designed?
to overcome the limitations of distance vector routing protocols
What happens when a failure occurs in the network, such as a neighbor becomes unreachable?
Link-state protocols flood LSAs with a special multicast address throughout an area. This process sends information out all ports, except the port on which the information was received. Each link-state router takes a copy of the LSA and updates its link-state, or topological database. The link-state router then forwards the LSA to all neighbor devices. LSAs cause every router within the area to recalculate routes
What is a state of the link?
a description of an interface and the relationship to the neighbor routers
What is called a topological database?
The collection of link-states form a link-state database
For what is the link-state database used?
to calculate the best paths through the network