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### 12 Cards in this Set

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 Like an array, a ___ has a base type, and like an array, a ___ stores a collection of values of its base type. However, the syntax for a ___ type and a ___ variable declaration is different from the syntax for arrays. vector You declare a variable, v, for a vector with base type int as follows: vector v; The notation vector is a ___ class, which means you can plug in any type for Base_Type and that will produce a class for vectors with that base type. template Vector elements are indexed starting with ___, the same as arrays. 0 the following changes the value of the ith element of the vector v and then outputs that changed value. (i is an int variable.) v[i] = 42; cout << "The answer is " << v[i]; you cannot initialize the ith element using v[i]; you can only change an element that has already been given some value. To add an element to a vector for the first time, you normally use the member function push_back. the following gives initial values to elements 0, 1, and 2 of the vector sample: vector sample; sample.push_back(0.0); sample.push_back(1.1); sample.push_back(2.2); You can write out all the elements currently in the vector sample as follows: for (int i = 0; i < sample.size( ); i++) cout << sample[i] << endl; The function size returns a value of type unsigned int, not a value of type int. If you want to be very safe, you can always apply a type cast to convert the returned unsigned int to an int, or in cases like this for loop, use a loop control variable of type unsigned int as follows: for (unsigned int i = 0; i < sample.size( ); i++) cout << sample[i] << endl; There is a vector constructor that takes one integer argument and will initialize the number of positions given as the argument. For example, if you declare v as follows: vector v(10); then the first ten elements are initialized to 0 and v.size( ) would return 10. You can then set the value of the ith element using v[i] for values of i equal to 0 through 9. In particular, the following could immediately follow the declaration: for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 10; i++) v[i] = i; To set the ith element for i greater than or equal to 10, you would use push_back. Using Square Brackets beyond the Vector Size If v is a vector and i is greater than or equal to v.size( ), then the element v[i] does not yet exist and needs to be created by using push_back to add elements up to and including position i. If you try to set v[i] for i greater than or equal to v.size( ), as in v[i] = n; then you may or may not get an error message, but your program will undoubtedly misbehave at some point. The size of a vector is the number of elements in the vector. The capacity of a vector is the number of elements for which it currently has memory allocated. For a vector v, the size and capacity can be recovered with the member functions v.___( ) and v.___( ). size capacity