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10 Cards in this Set

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Thresholding
minimize background debris by setting a value below which all values will be considered white and a value above which all values will be considered black. This process can also be used to enhance the light and dark bands of G-banded chromosomes. In color imaging this process can be used to manipulate the various colors of DNA probes and counterstains.
Digitization
Two steps: In step one, sampling determines pixel size and brightness value. In step two, quantization determines pixel depth.
Converting image from analog from the scope to digital image.
Pixel
Unit of screen. Each pixel stored in an area of memory called a bit map.
The pixels will begin to show when you enlarge the image too much
The more pixels there are in an image, the more it can be enlarged before pixelization occurs
Matrix
Depends in part on the number of pixels used to create the image
More pixels add detail and sharpen edges
or the number of pixels per inch of screen
The size of a photograph is specified in one of two ways
by its dimensions in pixels
by the total number of pixels it contains

Resolution is dependent on matrix size and number of pixels per inch of screen.
Resolution
Resolution is dependent on the matrix size.
At extremely low resolution, pixels can be seen with the unaided eye. This is called pixelization.
CCD
With digital photography, the detector is a solid state image sensor called a charge coupled device...CCD for short.
CCD differentiates film cameras from digital cameras.

CCD with few photocells, samples at low resolution.At extremely low resolution, pixels can be seen with the unaided eye. This is called pixelization.

CCD with more photocells, samples at higher spatial resolution.In this kind of image individual pixels can no longer be seen.
Vector Image
OBJECT ORIENTED IMAGES

Vector graphics describe an image independent of the resolution of the final rendering device.

good for plots that can be described by objects (lines, circles, letters, etc.).

Vector can be converted to raster.
Raster Image
BIT-MAPPED

describe an image as an array of colored pixels

only reasonable choice for photos and satellite images

Image is determined by spatial resolution and brightness resolution.

graphics cannot be converted back to vector graphics
Bit Map
where each pixel is stored in an area of memory.
Process of bit mapping controls or addressses a grid of individual pixels (each pixel has a numbered address).
Level of Brightness
the higher the bit level, the higher the level of brightness. Noise appears as small, random variation in brightness or color.

Higher resolution provides more brightness levels.