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44 Cards in this Set

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Pavlov
Classical conditioning in the early 1900s
Watson
Development of Fear
Little Albert
1920s
Mary Cover Jones
Removal of Fear
Little Peter
1920s
Skinner
Operant conditioning
1950s
Positive reinforcement
Likelihood increases that the person will emit a similar response
Negative reinforcement
Response to avoid something aversive
Wolpe
1950s
Reduction of anxiety through competing behaviors
Bandura
1960s and 1970s
Social learning
Modeling
BoBo
Mischel
Observational learning
Modeling
Ellis
REBT
Irrational thoughts
Beck
1960s
Cognitive therapy
Schemas
Cognitive structures within the mind; core beliefs; Cognitive schemas are one's core beliefs about self, others, the world, and future
Core beliefs
Most fundamental level of belief; rigid; global; develops in childhood and acts as a "lens" of perception
Intermediate beliefs
More available to consciousness; attitudes, rules, or assumptions
If-then statements
Automatic beliefs
Actual words or images that go through a persons's mind; situation specific; superficial level of cognition
Depression
Cognitive schemas about self, world, and future contain themese of exaggerated or persistent loss; negative cognitive triad
Anxiety
Cognitive schemas contain themes of exaggerated and persistent danger
Hypomania
Cognitive schemas contain themes of exaggerated and persistent gain
Cognitive distortions
Evident in automatic thoughts, intermediate thoughts, and core beliefs
Arbitrary inference
Jumping to a conclusion in the absence of supporting evidence and even despite evidence to the contrary
Selective abstraction
Conceptualizing an entire situation based on taking one detail out of context and ignoring other aspects of the context
Overgeneralization
Abstracting a general rule from one or a few isolated incidents and applying it too broadly and to unrelated situations
Magnification
Attributing much more importance to something than his warranted; catastrophizing
Minimization
Attribuing much less importance to something than is warranted; denial
Personalization
Attributing the cause of external events entirely to oneself without evidence supporting a causal connection
Dichotomous thinking
Black and white thinking
Linehan
DBT; Borderline PD is caused by biological factors and exposure to an invalidating environment; reduce self-injurious behaviors, life threatening behaviors, inference to therapy; increase quality of life
Behavioral Personality Development
Tabula rasa
Sum total and interaction of voluntary and involunatary behaviors
Modeling
Therapist demonstrates a behavior that the client wants to do; client imitates (Bandura); good for social skills and assertiveness
Behavioral rehearsal/role play
Client first practices a voluntary behavior in session and then performs it outside the session; Therapist often provides prompting (suggestions)
Guided discovery
Shaping to break behavior into smaller response pieces and progress systematically from simpler to more complex
Activity scheduling
Chart daily activities for near future; once the client engages in activities, client will likely experience reinforcement
Mastery and pleasure rating
Client rates anticipated pleasure prior to engaging in adaptive behavior and actual pleasure after engaging in it
Reinforcement of a competing response
Client engages in an undesired behavior, he stops and engages instead in another behavior he finds reinforcing and makes it impossible for him to engage in the undesirable behavior
Systematic desensitization
Develop a stimulus hierarchy; Learn relaxation
Flooding
Long sesson and continuously encounter frightening conditioned stimuli
Cognitive personality development
Some innate perceptual differences, but mostly environmental
Daily records of dysfunctional thoughts
Client identifies an upsetting event, emotion, and strength 1-100, automatic thoughts, cognitive distortions, more realistic thoughts, strength of cognition
Socratic questioning
Facilitate new client learning; not leading questions
Define terms
Define terms and labels such as "worthlessness", "success"..
Double standard technique
Apply own beliefs to someone he loves
Reattribution
For personalization, client reduces excessive guilt by identifying factors beside himself that contributed to some occurrence
Externalization of voices
Client who has successfully challenged a distorted belief switches role with therapist; Therapist tries to convince client of distorted belief
Downward arrow technique
Proceeding with the automatic thought, ask "What does that mean to you?", "What does that mean about you?" to identify intermediate and core beliefs.