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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Trace the blood through the heart:
Vena cava
R Atrium
Tricuspid Valve
R Ventricle
Pulmonary Semilunar Valves
Pulmonary Trunk/ Arteries
Pulmonary Veins
L Atrium
Bicuspid Valve
L Ventricle
Aortic Semilunar Valves
Heart Valves:
Tricuspid- b/w _____
Bicuspid- b/w the _____
_____- at the base of the aorta
_____- at the base of the pulmonary trunk (not seen here)
These valves, when functioning normally, prevent ____ or regurgitation blood
right atrium & right ventricle
left atrium & left ventricle
Aortic semilunar
Pulmonary Semilunar
Heart valves are located roughly at the _____.
Heart valves are supported by a tough fibrous tissue called the _____…the skeleton of the heart. This fibrous tissue separates the _____. It also helps with _____.
same level
Fibrous Trigone
atria from the ventricles
Vasculature of the Heart:
Consists of the _____ arteries and _____ veins-which convey blood to & from the _____ of the heart. These blood vessels are embedded in fat and course between the epicardium and myocardium
The endocardium receives oxygen via _____/microvascularization from _____ the chambers of the heart
The right coronary artery arises from the _____ or the base of the _____. It courses in the _____ between the atria and ventricles. It gives off a small _____ branch to the SA node. It then gives off a _____ branch and finally courses to the back (through the groove) becoming the _____ to supply the _____. It also _____ with branches of the left coronary artery.
aortic sinus
coronary/atrioventricular groove
sinoatrial branch
right marginal branch
posterior interventricular artery/posterior descending artery (PDA)
the right auricle overlies the origin of the _____. This winds around the right side of the heart in the _____.
right coronary artery
atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus
Gives of an AV nodal branch to the AV node
Right coronary artery
The left coronary artery (left main stem vessel) arises from the _____, divides into 2 branches (_____/_____ and _____). The former supplies the _____ and it _____ with the right coronary artery; it also runs alongside the _____, which is continuous with the _____. The _____ branch courses to the posterior aspect of the heart giving off the _____.
aortic sinus
anterior interventricular artery/left anterior descending (LAD)
great cardiac vein
coronary sinus
left marginal branch
A bypass is referred to as _____. The great saphenous vein is routinely utilized as a graft or the internal thoracic artery.
Heart is drained mainly by veins that empty into the large _____ which empties into the _____. The coronary sinus receives drainage from the _____, _____, and _____.
Coronary Sinus
right atrium
Great Cardiac Vein
Middle Cardiac Vein
Small Cardiac Vein
Pacemaker of the heart.

Initiates and regulates impulses for _____ contraction.

The signal rapidly propagates via _____ to the AV node, which is located in the base of the right atrium. The AV node distributes the signal to the _____ and _____ via the _____ and the _____.
SA Node
cardiac muscle
papillary muscles
AV Bundles (of His)
Purkinje Fibers
Sympathetic Innervation of nodal tissue increases the heart’s _____ and _____ & dilates the _____

Parasympathetic Innervation via the _____ nerve decreases the heart’s rate and force of contraction & constricts coronary arteries.
force of contraction
coronary arteries

Visceral motor neurons (Autonomic nervous system), no matter if they are sympathetic or parasympathetic nerves, always utilize a _____.
2 neuron system
Origin of preganglionic nerves of sympathetic & parasympathetic divisions
Sympathetic: Spinal cord gray mater of T1-L2
Parasympathetic: Brainstem (CN 3, 7, 9, 10=vagus) and sacral gray mater (S2-S4)
Preganglionic sympathetics (GVE) neurons destined for THORACIC ORGAN (i.e., heart) originate in upper thoracic segments of the lateral horn (_____ to _____) of the spinal cord. They enter the _____ of the sympathetic chain and synapse on a _____. The axons exit/pierce the chain as _____ which synapse on the heart nodal tissue (SA/AV) or _____ to effect the heart. Visceral afferent neurons (GVA) for these thoracic viscera/organs...
white ramus
postganglionic neuron
cardiac sympathetic nerves
coronary arteries

follow the sympathetic GVE neurons back toward the spinal cord (entering dorsal root)
_____ never innervate visceral organs.
Ventral rami
Some preganglionic sympathetics that innervate thoracic viscera (i.e., heart or lungs) ascend to _____levels before they synapse. They still originate between _____ and _____, enter the sympathetic chain, ascend to the cervical level, synapse, and exit the chain as _____ (or _____ if innervating the lungs).
T1 & T5
cardiac/pulmonary nerves.
Preganglionic sympathetics (GVE) motor neurons destined for abdominopelvic viscera (i.e., stomach or intestines) originate in _____ segments of the lateral horn of the spinal cord. They originate in the lateral horn, exit via the ventral root, enter the sympathetic chain via the white ramus, exit/pierce the chain WITHOUT synapsing as _____, synapse on a postganglionic neuron within a _____ before innervating the organ. GVA neurons in these areas....

Note: they're not good at _____ pain/discomfort; it's just general
splanchnic nerves
prevertebral ganglion

follow the GVE back to the spinal cord

Major differences between GVE sympathetics destined for thoracic and abdominopelvic viscera (and they can travel to cervical regions)
Thoracic orginates in T1-T5, synapses in the sympathetic chain, and becomes cardiac/pulmonary nerves

Abdominopelvic originates in T5-L2, goes through the sympathetic chain becoming the splanchnic nerve, and synapses within a prevertebral ganglion.
There are no parasympathetics in the _____ and _____. It's a _____ system. Parasympathetic nerves exiting S2-S4 are called
skin or limbs
2 neuron system
pelvic splanchnic
The vagus nerve (CN X) supplies the majority of parasympathetics to the _____.

Sacral parasympathetics supply _____ (bladder, uterus) along with the descending, sigmoid colon, and rectum (where vagus leaves off)

Cranial nerves III, VII & IX provide the parasympathetics to the _____
thoracic (100%) and abdominal viscera (90%)
pelvic viscera
head and neck region
Preganglionic parasympathetics traveling in the vagus nerve (CN X) and the pelvic splanchnics synapse in small isolated ganglia (intrinsic or enteric) located _____
in or near the wall of the target organ
Sympathetics in the heart...think
Parasympathetics in the heart...think
Both utilize a _____
T1-T5 & cardiac nerves
Vagus Nerve
2 neuron system
Separates the smooth wall from the musculi pectinati on the interior of the heart (we saw it in observing the right atrium).
Crista Terminalis
Right Atrium:

smooth-walled cavity of the right atrium

crest separating smooth-walled sinus venarum from muscular trabeculated part

rough muscular portion of the anterior atrium

fetal remnant of oval foramen

wall between right and left atria

muscular rim of fossa ovalis marking position of rim of foramen ovale in fetus

opening of coronary sinus (vein) with rudimentary valve
Sinus venarum
Crista Terminalis
Musculi Pectinati
Fossa Ovalis
interatrial septum
limbus fossa ovalis
ostium of coronary sinus
Right Ventricle:

muscular elevations/bundles in ventricles

Cord-like tendons of papillary muscles that attach to cusps of tricuspid valve

cone-shaped muscles extending from ventricular walls to chordae tendinae (anterior, posterior, and septal)

Valve through which blood exits the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk
Trabeculae Carneae

Chordae Tendinae

Papillary muscles

Pulmonary Semilunar Valves
Ostia refers to
Left Atrium:

What comes from the lungs?

Rudimentary valve remaining from fetus

valve of left atriventricular ostium with 2 cusps (anterior & posterior)
Pulmonary veins

valve for foramen ovale

mitral/bicuspid valve
Left Ventricle:

muscular bundles that line walls of ventricles

cord-like tendons of papillary muscles that attach to cusps of mitral valve

cone-shaped muscles extending from ventricular walls to chordae tendinae (anterior and posterior)

valve through which blood exits left ventricle; formed by three semilunar cusps (left, right, and posterior).
trabeculae carnae
Chordae Tendinae
Papillary Muscles
Mitral/Bicuspid Valve
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Ventricular _____ (_____)
atrioventricular valves (tri/bicuspid) _____
Semilunar valves _____
Contraction (emptying)
Ventricular _____ (_____)
Atrial _____
_____ close
_____ open
Relaxation (filling)
Semilunar valves
prevent eversion of the valve cusps
chordae tendineae and papillary muscles
1st heart sound is a “lupp” which signifies closure of the _____
2nd heart sound is a “dubb” which signifies closure of the _____ during relaxation
mitral/tricuspid valves
semilunar valves
proximal portion of the aorta above the semilunar valve.

The _____ arise from this
Aortic sinus

coronary arteries
During diastole- as blood backflows- the valve closes filling the aortic sinus and _____
coronary arteries
In most cases, sounds generated by impaired blood flow are better heard _____ (auscultation sites) than at the projection of the valve on the chest wall.
Prenatal Circulation

Oxygenated blood flows from the placenta via the _____, which flows through the liver into the IVC. Blood from IVC flows into the right atrium then through the _____ into the left atrium. The left atrium contracts propelling the blood into the left ventricle, then to the rest of the system. Blood returns to the placenta via the _____ (which arise from the external iliac arteries).
umbilical vein
foramen ovale
umbilical arteries
Prenatal Circulation 2

Some blood inevitably flows into the right ventricle. As the R ventricle contracts, the blood is diverted from the pulmonary trunk via the _____ into the aorta where it joints the system circulation. During postnatal circulation, the umbilical vein obliterates (from the cord) along with the ductus arteriosus, which becomes the _____.
ductus arteriosus
ligamentum arteriosum