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71 Cards in this Set

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Approximately how many people were expelled during WW2?
12-14 million ethnic germans
How many people killed/died in the process?
2 million ethnic Germans
When did Germany became a nation-state?
1871
When did the HRE exist?
800-1800
When did Weimar republic exist?
1919-1933
When was world war 1?
1914-1919
When did Hitler come to power
January 30, 1933
What was the HRE empire like?
bunch of loosely confederated states (i.e. Prussia)
What hapened at the Congress of Vienna?
federation of 38/39 German states crafted, kind of a response to Napoleon (18teens) -- state like factors emerge (conscription, edu, single economic entity, trains, etc.)
What was Prussia?
best, strongest state, absorbed rhineland, strong military, led German federation
Approximately how many people were expelled during WW2?
12-14 million ethnic germans
How many people killed/died in the process?
2 million ethnic Germans
When did Germany became a nation-state?
1871
When did the HRE exist?
800-1800
When did Weimar republic exist?
1919-1933
When was world war 1?
1914-1919
When did Hitler come to power
January 30, 1933
What was the HRE empire like?
bunch of loosely confederated states (i.e. Prussia)
What hapened at the Congress of Vienna?
federation of 38/39 German states crafted, kind of a response to Napoleon (18teens) -- state like factors emerge (conscription, edu, single economic entity, trains, etc.)
What was Prussia?
best, strongest state, absorbed rhineland, strong military, led German federation
What was liberal nationalism?
political reforms (constits), make trade more free, free up courts, freedom of spech/press etc., liberation from foreign control
When was liberal nationalism a big phenomenon?
19th century (1800s)
What was Weimar republic like?
progressive political system (welfare state), but crippled by war reparations, born out of defeat, Great Depressoin
What was the early german nation-state like?
led by prussia, militaristic, less libearl nationalist, huge industrial power (bigger than GB)
What was the post WW1 mindset?
chaotic moasic of people, boarders could be changed with people left where they were, minorities incorperated into the nationa state, minority rights protected (1918-1939)
How did Germans get all over the place?
expansion and contraction of various empires (Austrohungarian hapsburgs, Ottoman empire) spread germanic tribes all throughout Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Europe
What was the ww2/post ww2 mindset towards minorities?
ethnic nationalism (nations comprised of one "race" / ethnicity), minorities NOT tolerated, but expelled
What were the categorizations of Germans?
1. Reichsdeutsche (Germans of the reich)
2. Voksdeutsche (Recent emigrants, "ethnic Germans")
3. Autochthons (multigenerational inhabitants, been there for a long time, have local ID)
When did Hitler annex the sudetenland of Czeckoslovakia?
1938
What was up with the Sudetenland?
1st- Czeckoslovakia gained part of Austria when formed
2nd - German "austrians" in Sudetenland
3rd - Hitler wanted to get all Germans in the Reich, annexed Sudetenland
4th - German-speakers welcolmed Nazis
5th - Czecks feel betrayed
When does Germany/USSR annex Poland?
1939
Who were the allies/who were their leaders?
US (FDR) UK (CHURCHILL) USSR (STALIN)
What happens at Potsdam?
-Atlee replaces Churchill, Truman replaces FDR
-temporary border between Poland and germany decided
-"humane transfer" of ethnic germans approved
-reversion of everything Germany annexed after 1937
When is Potsdam?
July 17, 1945
What happenes at Atlantic Conference?
August 1941, UK wants US support in war
What happens at Casablanca?
FDR/Churchill meet again
What happens in Cairo
November 1943, FDR, Churchill, Shang Kai Shek, decided what to do about Japan (war)
What happens in Tehran?
decide to open 2nd front, stalin there, agree to work together
What happens in Yalta?
February 1945, agreement on UN, what do about Germany? Begininning of Cold War?
Expulsions FROM czeckoslovakia?
3 million expelled, tried hard to have non-Nazi practices of identification, expelled Hungarians too, NOT treated as badly as Poles, still had expulsions (SHOWS ITS OCCUPATION NOT SEVERITY THAT REALLY MATTERS)
expulsions FROM Poland
~7 million, USSR supportive of expellees, Poles LOWER, germans EQUAL
Periodization
January 1945 (flight from Red Army) to
Spring/Summer 1945 "wild transfers"
July 1945 "humane transfers"
today (legacy still remains) OR

Oct 1945 (maj ppl moved)
Political
allies signed off, even communists, almost consensus (shows how racialized discourse had become NOT questioned!!) ethnic nationalism
How West Germany recieved expellees?
1. burden on strugling economy, occupation spread out
2. remained bitter (revanchists), formed political parties, viewed as indirect vicitms of Nazism (done to 'themselves')
g'vt effort to remember stories
What is a revanchist?
somebody who wants to reclaim lands they believe to be rightfully theres, in this case ethnic germans who want to reclaim land in Poland or Czeckoslovakia
How East Germany recieved resettlers?
1/3 population
toughter conditions
many migrated to us/west/canada
freedom of speech lacking (story not told)
seen as victims of fascism
What is a resettler?
an expelle in the east
What is a expellee?
a resettler in the west
WHAT CHANGED btwn ww1 and ww2
minority rts protected --> no minorities
move borders --> move ppl
german definitions of racialized nationalism
-idea of ethnic cleansing present (not name)
Why expelled?
-allies signed off
-rhetoric/idea of ethnic nationalism
-revenge
How do these expulsions break stereotypes about "ethnic cleansing'?
-in europe
-NOT about ancient hatreds
-UK, USSR, etc. condoned it
Definition of "Sex"
Male, female, or other (biological designations)
Definition of "Gender"
masculinity, feminity, androgony, transgender, etc., in part socially constructed/historically contingent, "relational" ie about BOTH men and women
Scott's definition of Gender
1. analyze symbols
2. challenge normative concepts
3. examine the political/economic impact of gender segregation (NOT just kinship)
4. historicize/contextualize gender identity
how to define race?
by practices of identification (religion, language, ethnic ID cards, customs, etc.)
Scott's theory
gender is a way of signifying relations of power "decodes meaning"
Ways to use gender
1. "male and female bodies" circumstancial, "b/c they were there and because they were women"
2. masculinity/femininity
-social construct
3. gender infused onto national conflicts (ie "female virtue" = nations purity)
4. gender less important than other factors (being jewish under the nazis overwhelmed gender differences (Naimark 84)
precedent for expulsions
transfer of greeks and turks in 1923 by treaty of laussanne
how did potsdam change expulsions?
ordered them to be "humane and peaceful," but that might have made them worse
when were the "wild transfers'
spring and summer of 1945
when were the "humane and peaceful" transfers?
July 1945
how did communists feel about expulsions?
for it, ironically
who was more feared, soviets or Poles/Czecks?
Poles/Czecks unless it comes to rape
usti nad labem?
massacre of germans b/c of rumors than german gangs were trying to infiltrate polish organizations
Czecks also expelled....
Hungarians
Poles also expelled....
Jews and Ukranians
What were the Czeckoslovakian practices of identification?
Pre-Postdam: documentation/legalities paid little attentino to
Post-Potsdam: made efforts not to be nazi-like, in terms of "elected" nationality not racialized nationality (look at a combination of how ppl identified themselves before the war, on censuses, etc.)
Who had a harder time at hands of Germans?
Poles, but Czecks = violent b/c it was more about being occupied than the severity of occupation
What territorial motivation did Poles have for expulsions?
Poles had had land usurped in east by russia and wanted to make up for that lost land in the west, but that meant taking over predominantly German lands. The poles wnated to cement their control over these regions through expulsions
What were the practices of idenitfication?
Used the Bolksliste (ppls list) established by the Nazis
volksdeutsche lost rights property, executed, sent to prison camps
reichsdeutsche prosecuted as war criminals, deported
categories 3 and 4 autotchons could apply for "verificaiton as Poles"
Why did this expulsions happen?
revenge, nationalist rhetoric, territorial acquisition, support by allies, strove to make nations ethnically homogenous nationalism = the making of a state