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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are three distinct functions of the cerbellum?
1. Fine motor control
2. Balance
3. Motor Programs
What is the name of the last branch of the cellebelar vermis?
The nodule
What is the tonsil of the cerebellum part of?
The actual cerebellar hemisphere not the vermis
What are the three parts of the cerebellum?
1. Archicerebellum
2. Paleocerebellum
3. Neocerebellum
What part of the cerebellum is associated with the archicerebellum?
Flocculi and the nodule
What part of the cerebellum is associated with the paleocerebellum?
Veris and paravermis
What part of the cerebellum is associated with the neocerebellum?
The lateral portions of the cerebellar hemispheres
What functions are associated with the archicerebellum?
Control of vestibular and eye structures
What functions are associated with the paleocerbellum?
Axial musculature
What functions are associated with the neocerebellum?
Distal musculature
What are the four cerebellar nuclei?
1. Denate nucleus
2. Emboliform nucelus
3. Globose nucleus
4. Fastigial nucleus
What nucleus is associated with the neocerebellum?
Dentate nucleus
What nuclei are associated with the paleocerebellum? What are they collectively called?
1. Emboliform and Globose
2. Interposed nucleus
What nucleus is associated with the archicerebellum?
Fastigial nucleus
The dentate nucleus is also associated with what network? What other things are associated with this nucleus and what are their connections?
1. Mollaret's Triangle
2. Red Nucleus and Inferior Olivary Nucleus
3. Central Tegmental Tract (RN to ION) and Olivocerebellar Tract (ION to DN)
What are the three alternative names to the cerebellar peduncles?
1. Superior - Branchium Conjunctivum
2. Middle - Branchium Pontis
3. Inferior - Restiform
If one is looking with the cerebellum removed, what will be the penducle you see at the level of the fourth ventricle?
The middle or branchium pontis peduncle
True or False: The cerebellum has pretty much the same circuitry no matter what part of it you are looking at.
True
How many primary layers are present in the cerebellum? What are they and what are their anatomical positions?
1. Three
2. Molecular - outtermost
3. Purkinje - middle
4. Granular - deep
How would you describe the molecular layer?
Acellular
How would you describe the purkinje layer?
Huge neurons
How would you describe the granular layer?
Very cellular layer mainly composed of granular cells but also has some other cell types
Where is the purkinje axon projected?
Into the granular layer
What type of cells seem hidden in the granular layer?
Golgi cells
What are the only excitatory cells in the cerebellum?
The granular cells
All cells in the cerebellum are (inhibitory/excitatory) except the granular cells.
Inhibitory
There are two interneurons loctaed in the molecular layer. What are they called?
1. Basket cell
2. Stellate cell
What are the two types of input fibers the cerebellum receives?
1. Mossy fibers
2. Climbing fibers
What are the fibers the are given off by granular cells called?
Parallel fibers
Where do climbing fibers originate and what is their function?
1. Inferior olivary nucleus
2. Excitatory
What type of fiber is located on every branch of a purkinje neuron's dendritic tree?
Climbing fiber
What type of fiber is anything that enters into the cerebellum yet does not climb on every branch of a dendritic tree called? What do they end up synapsing on?
1. Mossy fiber
2. Granular cells
What do the parallel fibers from granular cells end up making connections with (4)?
1. Purkinje neurons
2. Stellate cells
3. Basket cells
4. Golgi cells
What does the basket cell project to?
The cell body of the purkinje neuron
What does the stellate cell project to?
The dendritic tree of the purkinje neuron
What do the two types of interneurons in the molecular layer do?
Inhibit the purkinje neuron upon stimulation from parallel fibers.
Where do the golgi cells send their projections? What happens when they get there?
They send their projections to the molecular layer where they are innervated by the parallel fibers of the granular cells. Once innervated, they feedback and inhibit the granular cells in the granular layer.
How would you describe the end of the mossy fiber?
Glomerulus
What is the ultimate output of the cerebellum?
The deep cerebellar nuclei
All incoming fibers ALSO send projections where?
The deep cerebellar nuclei
The cerebellum is modulated by what NT?
Norepinepherine
What sets the tone of muscles?
Muscle spindles
How many spinocerebellar tracts are there and what are their names?
1. Four
2. Ventral, dorsal, rostral and cueno SCTs
Which spinocerebellar tracts go to the legs?
Dorsal and ventral
Which spinocerebellar tracts go to the arms?
Cuneo and rostral
Which two spinocerebellar nuclei have relay nuclei in the thoracic spinal cord? What are the names of the relay nuceli?
1. Cuneo - External Cuneate Nucleus
2. Dorsal - Clarke's Column
Which spinocerebellar nuclei go through the superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles?
Just the rostral tract
Which cerebellar peduncle does the ventral spinocerebellar tract use?
The superior cerebellar peduncle
Where do you find the spinocerebellar tracts in the spinal cord?
The most lateral portion of the lateral funiclus
Where does one find the external cuneate nucleus? What is located next to?
1. The most rostral part of the medulla.
2. Inferior cerebellar peduncle
What does the middle cerebellar peduncle carry? What type of fibers are these primarily?
1. The collaterals from the contralaterals from the descending corticospinal tract that synapsed on the pontine nuclei.
2. Mossy
Is the superior cerebellar peduncle input or output?
Output
Which cerebellar nucleus primary sends information through the superior cerebellar peduncle?
Dentate nucleus
What is special about the superior cerebellar peduncle?
It decussates
What are the three alternative names for the archi, paleo and neocerebellum?
1. Vestibulocerebellum - archicerebellum
2. Cerebrocerebellum - neocerebellum
3. Spinocerebellum - paleocerebellum
Where do most of the outputs of the dentate nucleus end up?
The thalamus (VA/VL) which go to the motor cortex
When you are uncoordinated the problem is located in which division of the cerebellum?
Neocerebellum/Cerebrocerebellum
When nystagmus is present, the problem is probably located in which division of the cerebellum?
Archicerebellum/Vestibulocerebellum
What is another word for uncoordination?
Dysmetria
What is called when you cannot do rapid alternating movements?
Dysdiadochokinesia
What is clumsiness of gait?
Ataxia
What is called when one cannot get their gait started?
Apraxia
A positive sign of what test can indicate cerebellar problems?
Romberg