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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Spurious relationship
A relationship between two variables that is due to variation in a third variable
Intervening variable
variables that are influenced by an independent variable and in turn influence variation in a dependent variable, thus helping to explain the relationship betwen the independent and dependent variables.
Random assignment
A procedure by which each experimental subject is placed in a group randomly
Trend study
A longitudinal study in which data are collected at two or more points in time from different samples of the same population.
True or false: A trend study is also called a repeated cross-sectional design
The outcome that would have occurred if the subjects who were exposed to the treatment actually were not exposed, but otherwise had had identical experiences to those they underwent during the experiment.
Ecological fallacy
An error in reasoning in which incorrect conclusions aout individual-level processes are drawn from group-level data
Cohort study
A type of longitudinal study in which data are collected at two or more points in time from individuals in a cohort.
True or false: an event-based design and corhort study are not the same thing
The random assignment of cases, as by the toss of a coin
Reductionist fallacy (reductionism)
An error in reasoning that occurs when incorrect conclusions about group-level processes are based on individual-level data.
Unit of analysis
the level of social life on which a research question is focused, such as individuals, groups, towns or nations
A criterion for estabilishing a nomothetic casual relationship between two variables: variation in one variable is related to variation in another variable
Unit of observation
The cases about which measures actually are obtained in a sample
Extraneous variable
A variable that influences both the independent and dependent variables so as to create a supurious assocition between them that disappears when the extraneous variable is controlled
Case-oriented understanding
An understanding of social processes in a group, formal organization, community or other collectivity tha reflects accurately the standpoint of participants