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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Recurrent artery of Heubner supplies . . .
Caudate and anterior limb of IC
Lateral lenticulostriate vessels arise from . . .
MCA
Hyperdense and T2 hypointense lesions?
Hemorrhage
Cellularity
Protein
Calcification
Hypoenhancing mets?
Cortical mets
Tolosa-Hunt
Involvement of cavernous sinus and orbital apex
Venous epidural hematoma
Can cross the tentorium
Occur in posterior fossa more commonly
Most common necrotic met
AdenoCa
Clue to abscess identification
Evagination toward ventricle
Normal cerebellar tonsil position
Less than 6 mm in peds
Less than 3 mm in adults
Chiari II spinal malformations
Klippel-Feil
C2-C3 partial fusion
Occipitalization of atlas
Hypoplastic C1 ring
Causes of noncommunicating hydrocephalus
Neoplasm
Infection
Hemorrhage
Congenital lesions
Causes of communicating hydrocephalus
Meningitis
Ventriculitis
SAH
Carcinomatous meningitis
Bones affected in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
Skull
Facial bones
Pelvis
Spine
Balo's concentric sclerosis
Alternating rings of demyelination and myelination
Devic's disease
Optic pathways and spinal cord demyelination
Multiple meningiomas seen in?
Familial
NF II
XRT
Basal cell nevus
Causes of SDH in peds
Child abuse
Birth injury
Coagulopathies
Time course of symptomatic vasospasm
5-12 days
Aneurysm causing 3rd nerve palsy
PCOM
SCA
Locations of schwannomas
Vestibular
Trigeminal
Facial
Complications of orbital cellulitis
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Meningitis
Brain abscess
Causes of acute bilateral thalamic lesions
Artery of Percheron infarct
Deep venous thrombosis
Common locations of hypertensive infarcts
Basal ganglia especially putamen
Thalamus
Pons
Arachnoid cyst locations
Middle cranial fossa
Frontal convexity
Basal cisterns, CPA
Retrocerebellar
Intraocular calcification in peds
Retinoblastoma
PPHV
Toxocariasis
Coats' disease
Retrolental fibroplasia
MR findings in subdural empyema
T1 hypo,iso intense
T2 hyperintense
DWI+
Lacunar infarcts v perivascular spaces in the putamen
Lacunes in the upper half
Perivascular spaces in the lower half
Anomalies associated with callosal dysgenesis
Chiari II
Dandy Walker
Holoprosencephaly
Lipomas
Migrational disorders
"Cotton wool"
Calvarial involvement of Paget's
Processes that replace normal bone marrow
Hematologic malignancies
Myelofibrosis
Mets
Granulomatous dz - sarcoid
Red marrow in adult appendicular skeleton
Proximal metaphyses of femur and humerus
Most common locations for giant aneurysm
MCA
Cavernous ICA
Basilar tip
MR findings in giant aneurysm
Flow void
Phase artifact
Heterogenous signal from thrombi
Low on T2, high on FLAIR
Flow
Look out for aneurysms!
Hemorrhagic venous infarct in temporal lobe
Vein of Labbe infarct
Factors raising suspicion for venous infarction
Presence of hemorrhage especially in white or gray-white
Nonarterial distribution
Young patient
Etiologies of angiogram-negative SAH
Perimesencephalic venous hemorrhage
Vasculitis
Venous thrombosis
Spinal vascular malformations
Subependymal enhancement
GBM
Lymphoma
Mets - breat, lung
Sarcoid
TB
Most common cause of nontraumatic hemorrhage in adults
HTN
Causes of nontraumatic hemorrhage
HTN
AVMs
Stroke
Coagulopathy
Blood dyscrasia
Cocaine
Eclampsia
Vasculitis
CAA
Infection - aspergillus
Areas spared by CAA
BG
Brainstem
DWM
Cerebellum
Mesial temporal sclerosis
Volume loss of hippocampus
Variable T2 high intensity
Ex vacuo dilatation of temporal horn
Location of choroid plexus papillomas in adults
Most commonly 4th ventricle
Left atrial mass along choroid plexus
Meningioma
Astrocytoma
Ependymoma
Met
Hemangioma
Cavernoma

CPP unlikely in adults in lateral ventricle
Suprasellar germinoma appearance
Hyperdense on CT because of cellularity and protein content
Isointense on T2
Avid enhacement
May be DWI+

Image spine for seeding!
T1 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia
Hyper, hypo parathyroidism and the pseudos
Liver failure - most pronounced in globus pallidus
Hyperalimentation
Portosystemic shunting

Deposition of paramagnetic ions such as manganese, maybe copper

NF1

Paramagnetic material is hypointense on T2
Cause of herpes encephalitis
HSV I hanging out in gasserian ganglion in Meckel's gave that spread along trigeminal nerve to the meninges
Typical findings in herpes encephalitis
Mesial temporal and inferior frontal lobe involvement
Hemorrhage
DWI+
Cortical enhancement
Most common site of orbital metastases
Globe
Most common site of primary orbital lymphoma
Eyelid
EOM
Met breast cancer to the orbit characterized by?
Enopthalmos, think of scirrhous CA
Most common met to globe
Breast
Prostate
Most common extraocular orbital mets
Bone mets particularly prostate
Causes of basal meningitis
TB
Sarcoid
Leptomeningeal seeding
Lymphoma
Chemical meningitis
Ruptured dermoid
Tumors with predilection for SA seeding
PNETs
Germinomas
Gliomas
CPP
Sources of dural mets in adults
Breast
Lung
Prostate
Melanoma
Lymphoma
Sources of dural mets in peds
Neuroblastoma
Leukemia
Processes that mimic dural mets
TB
Fungal
Sarcoid
EG
Erdheim-Chester
Causes of aqueductal stenosis
Congenital
Webs
Debris
Compression
Cerebellar stroke
Rathke's cleft cysts are localized where?
Pars intermedia

Adenomas are usually lateral
Rathke's cleft cyst DDx
Hemorrhage
Craniopharyngioima
Choristoma
Causes of optic neuritis
MS
Sarcoid
SLE
Infection - Lyme, toxo
Ischemia
XRT
Appearance of wood
Hypodense on CT
Hypointense on MR
Fibrous dysplasia of the skull
T1 and T2 hypointense
Enhancing
No destruction of inner or outer tables

DDx includes Paget's
Tolosa-Hunt
Essentially pseudotumor of the cavernous sinus and orbital apex
T2 hypointense masses
Lymphoma
Meningioma

Plasmacytoma
Schwannoma
Complications of shunting
Ventriculitis
Slit ventricles
SDH
Malfunction
Complications of meningitis
SD empyema
Encephalitis
Brain abscess
Ventriculitis
Infundibular lesion DDx
Sarcoid
TB
EG
Met
Germinoma
Lymphoma
Hypothalamic glioma
Infundibular mass in children DDx
EG
Germinoma
TB
Meningitis
Lymphoma
Glioma
Lhermitte-Duclos - dysplastic gangliocytoma
Lateral cerebellar poor enhancing lesion with corduroy thickening of folia

Cowden disease
Symptoms of pituitary apoplexy
Acute HA, NV, visual disturbance, cranial neuropathy
Cavum vergae
Posterior to the forniceal columns and foramen of Monro
Thallium-201 scintigraphy
Positive in lymphoma
Toxo locations
BG
Corticomedullary junction
Nasal glioma
Ectopic glial tissue with no communication with intracranial CSF spaces
Most common location of intraventricular neurocysticercosis
4th ventricle
Divides IAC into inferior and superior portions
Crista falciformis
Causes of IAC enhancement
Viral - CMV in AIDS
Lyme disease
Sarcoid
PICA aneurysm rupture
SAH prepontine and premedullary cisterns

Consider intradural right vertebral artery dissection
Osteolytic Paget's
Osteoporosis circumscripta

Osteolysis most common in frontal and occipital regions
Paget's v fibrous dysplasia
Paget's has less involvement of facial bones

Paget's has cortical thickening

Paget's - older patients
Paget's DDx
Hyperostosis frontalis
Fibrous dysplasia
Mets
FMD in the head
Most commonly cervical ICA sparing proximal 2 cm

Involvement of media predominantly
Toxic insult to globus pallidi
CO
Cyanide
Wallenberg's syndrome
PICA infarct
Left lateral and posterior medulla
Loss of contralateral pain and temp in body and ipsi on face and cerebellar crap
Causes of Wallerian degeneration
Infarction
Trauma
Demyelinating disease
Neurodegerative disease
Wallerian degeneration
T2 hyperintense
T1 hypointense
DWI+
Vascular causes of EOM enlargement
CC fistula
SOV thrombosis
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
AVM
Risk factors for mucoceles
Sinusitis
Trauma
Allergies
Instrumentation
Appearance of mucoceles
Hyperdense on CT
T1 hyperintense
Variable on T2
Most common location of supratentorial ependymomas
Trigone
Factors affecting gradient echo imaging
Flip angle
Time to echo
Vein of Galen aneurysm
Falcine sinus develops because median prosencephalic vein provides diencephalic venous drainage
Most common craniosynostosis
Sagittal
Metopic synostosis
Trigonocephaly
Syndromes associated with synostoses
Apert's
Crouzon's
Treacher Collins
Hypophosphatasia
Harlequin eye
Elevation of lesser wing from coronal synostosis
Tectal glioma
Usually low-grade so not enhancing
Causes obstructive hydrocephalus
XR appearance of osseous epidermoid cysts
Lytic with sclerotic borders

DDx hemangioma, EG, leptomeningeal cyst
Causes of multisegment arterial narrowing
Vasculitis - Granulomatous, CTD, PAN
Atherosclerosis
Hypercoagulability
Vasospasm
Tram track enhancement of optic nerve sheath DDx
Meningioma
Sarcoid
Lymphoma
Mets
Pseudotumor
Pnemosinus dilatans
Air expansion of paranasal sinus associated with optic nerve meningioma
Lipomas arise from?
Meninx primitiva
Findings in intracranial hypotension
Sagging posterior fossa contents
Bilateral subdural effusions
Diffuse dural enhancement
Radiation-induced neoplasms
Meningiomas
Sarcomas
Schwannomas
Gliomas
Fahr disease
Bilaterally symmetric calcification in basal ganglia, thalami, dentate nuclei