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74 Cards in this Set

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On a radiograph, your right is the patients (left or right)
left
On a radiograph, the buble should be (concave, convex)
convex, towards you
On a radiograph, caries will appear (radioopaque, radiolucent)
radiolucent (black)
TACT, or tuned aperture computed tomgraphy is good for (clinical practice, research)
research
True or False, digital radiographs do NOT use X-rays
False, all radiographs require X-rays, digital or not
For digital X-rays, grayness ranges from 0 to 255, with 0 being (white, black)
black (255 is white)
Radiolucency is (black, white) where radioopaque is (black, white)
black, white
A technique that allows us to determine quantitative changes in radiographs is called
digital subtraction radiography
Digital subtraction radiography involves taking 2 radiographs about how many months apart?
3 to 6
Digital subtraction radiography can detect as little as ???% demineralization
5%
What is one main reason that digital subtraction radiography is rarely (if ever) used?
The 2 radiographs must be taken at exactly the same angle and this is almost impossible to do
Digital subtraction is good for monitoring what?
periodontal disease
A 3-D computer model generated as part of a Tuned-aperture computed tomography is called
pseudohologram
This method constructs radiographic slices or cross sections through teeth
Tuned-aperture computed tomography (TACT)
Bitewing radiographs are good for detecting caries located where?
interproximally or clinically hidden (can also be used for occlusal caries)
What you see on a radiograph apears (less, more) severe than the caries actually are
less, the actual caries will be 30 to 40% worse than they appear on radiograph
True or False, all radiolucent areas are caries
False, only some. You must know the anatomy of a tooth to determine if the area is caries or normal
With a rating of R-0 through R-4, which describes no radiolucency?
R-0
With a rating of R-0 through R-4, which describes radiolucency in the outer half of the enamel and this considered incipient?
R-1
With a rating of R-0 through R-4, which describes radiolucency at least half way through the enamel with lesions up to the enamel-dentin junction?
R-2 (from this number and up, we MUST treat)
With a rating of R-0 through R-4, which describes radiolucency extending into the dentin but less that half way through? (Invades DEJ)
R-3
With a rating of R-0 through R-4, which describes radiolucency more than halfway into the dentin and into the pulp?
R-4
What is the name for caries confined to the outer half of the enamel and thus repairable?
Incipient caries
True or False, Incipient caries are limited to the outer half of the enamel and this should NOT be repaired because they can be remineralized
True, this corresponds to an R-1
True or False, A matte/chalky surface indicates that caries are inactive
False, these are active caries
True or False, a brown and shiny hard surface indicates and arrested lesion
True, this means the caries are no longer progressing
True or False, Lesions that have become arrested will stay that way permenantly
False, they can become reactivatedin which case part of it will be soft and leathery
What is the most prevalent location for caries?
Occlusal
True or False, Occlusal caries are quite uncommon in children and adolescents
False, most common
Occlusal caries form what type of shape?
Triangular (apex is on occlusal surface and base within the tooh)
True or False, radiographs are not always reliable for diagnosing occlusal caries
True.
Carious occlusal lesions spread along what line?
DEJ
If an occlusal lesion spreads too far, it will extend pulpally in what type of shape?
sphere
Radiographic diagnosis of occlusal regions are only good once they reach what part of the tooth?
dentin
True or False, You can see incipient occlusal caries on a radiograph
False, this is an R-1 and you can only see R-2 and above
True or False, Incipient proximal caries develop quickly
False, slowly
How many years dows it take for incipient proximal caries to become apparent?
3 to 4
Between what 2 parts of a tooth do incipient proximal caries typically develop
between contact point and height of free gingival margin
Incipient proximal caries typically appear how on a radiograph?
as a radioluscent notch or V-shaped area on outer enamel
True or False, on proximal caries with V shaped lesions, the apex points at the DEJ
True, this is the opposite of occlusal caries where the base is towards the DEJ
What is the minimum percentage needed in order to detect caries on a radiograph?
30 to 40%
True or False, it is NOT recommended that you restore R-1 caries
True, these are incipient and can be reveresed naturally
When looking at interproximal radiolucency, what 2 things must you compare to see if it really is caries?
mesial and distal as well as other side of mouth
True or False, Pulp exposure can always be determined from a radiograph
False, often cannot be detected from radiograph alone
True or False, Occlusal caries can be detected starting at R-3
True, below that there is not enough destruction detectable
True or False, the periphery of a lesion on a facial or lingual caries are well demarcated
True.
Cervical caries are _____ shaped.
crescent
What type of lesion is often described as "black hole" or dots?
Facial / Lingual caries
Cemental caries are known by what two other names?
root or radicular caries
Cemental caries often begin at what line?
CEJ (cementum… duh)
The base of a cemental lesion is determined by the recession of what?
gingiva
True or False, Cemental caries are often very well defined
False, ill defined, saucer-shaped, scooped out, discolored
Cervical burn out is often misdiagnosed as what?
root caries
True or False, cervical burn out is not a carious lesion
True.
Cervical burn out is seen at the neck of the tooth, but below what line?
CEJ
Cervical burnout on posterior teeth are shaped how?
Triangular or wedge shape on proximal surface
Cervical burnout on anterior teeth are shaped how?
A band across the cervical neck of the tooth
Radiolucency along the cervical region is often not a lesion but instead is what?
cervical burn out
What type of treatment is required for cervical burn out?
None.
What causes cervical burn out?
density differences in the tooth below the CEJ, but will often go away if the X-ray is shot at a better horizontal angle
What do we call a new unprepared lesion?
primary
What do we call a lesion that is recurrent?
secondary
Why are secondary lesions often hard to detect?
existing restorations can get in the way
The amount of blackness on a radiograph is known as what?
density
A difference in density is known as what?
contrast
Radiographs tend to (underestimate, overestimate) the actual size of a lesion
underestimate
New patient adolescent and adults should have what 3 types or radiographs taken?
A combination of BW, PA, and panoramic
When should new patient children be given posterior bitwings?
when proximal contacts cannot be visualised or probed
Recall patient children with HIGH caries risk should have bitewings how often?
6 months or until caries are no longer evident
Recall patient adolescents with HIGH caries risk should have bitewings how often?
6 to 12 months or until caries are no longer evident
Recall patient adults with HIGH caries risk should have bitewings how often?
12 to 18 months or until caries are no longer evident
Recall patient children with NO caries risk should have bitewings how often?
12 to 24 months if proximal contacts canot be visualized or probed
Recall patient adolescents with NO caries risk should have bitewings how often?
18 to 36 months
Recall patient adults with NO caries risk should have bitewings how often?
24 to 36 months