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38 Cards in this Set

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1.Briefly explain the Secular view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
SECULAR VIEW OF WORK: WORK & GOD MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE
--- ultimate purpose of work is to fulfill yourself (money, own agenda, personal meaning and significance) OR just to earn a living
--- success in work = success in life, measured by material wealth, professional recognition, positional status
--- nothing matters more than getting the job done, by whatever means
Fulfill yourself or just to earn a living
Nothings matters more than job
Success in work= success in life, measured by material wealth
1.Briefly explain the Secular view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
(What is wrong with this view answer?)
Flaws of this view: 1) our purpose is to glorify God; 2) but God is left out of the system, and 3) work is the center/career is an idol. 4) Work shouldn’t define self.
1.Briefly explain the Secular view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
( Scripture References)
Scripture:
1) I John 2:15-16 “Do not love the world…For everything in the world --- cravings, lust, boasting --- comes not from the Father, but from the world.”
2) Matt. 6:19 Do not store up for yourselves treasure on earth (moths, rust, thieves, etc.)
3) Matt. 6:24 No one can serve two masters (God and money)
1.Briefly explain the Higher Calling view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
HIGHER CALLING VIEW OF WORK: ONLY GOD’S WORK COUNTS
--- Day-to-day work contributes nothing to God’s work; it just meets survival needs, which are a consequence of sin/The Fall (a punishment).
--- Only religious activities have real meaning to God
1.Briefly explain the Higher Calling view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
(What is wrong answer?)
Flaws: 1) God created us to have souls AND bodies, and live in a physical universe; 2) We live in the already-but not yet and there is work to do; 3) We are all called to do God’s work. Pastors do not have a higher calling.
1.Briefly explain the Higher Calling view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
(Scripture reference)
Scripture:
1) Eph. 4:11-12 “He gave some to be apostles, some prophets, etc. so that the body of Christ may be built up.”
2) I Thes. 2:9 “We worked day and night not be a burden to anyone.”
3) II Thes. 3:7-10 “We were not idle when we were with you…This is a model for you to follow…If a man will not work, he shall not eat.”
1.Briefly explain the Soap Box view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
SOAP BOX VIEW OF WORK: EVANGELISM IN SECULAR JOBS
--- Evangelists and missionaries do the most important work.
--- Job seen primarily in light of its strategic evangelistic value.
--- God meets physical and emotional needs merely to enable us to evangelize. Time and career should be managed to maximize evangelistic efforts.
1.Briefly explain the Soap Box view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
(What's wrong answer)
Flaws: 1) This is based on the Great Commission, which is primarily about DISCIPLESHIP; 2) “The chief end of man is to glorify God and enjoy him forever;” 3) Work is part of the original mandate; the Great Commission came later; 3) It separates God from reality and from life; 4) God creates us to have different gifts
1.Briefly explain the Soap Box view of work, giving its major points and explain what’s wrong with this view, giving scripture references.
(Scripture reference)
Scripture: Eph. 1: 6, 12, 14 “that we might be to the praise of his glory."
1.List and describe all 4 points of the Biblical view of work, giving Scripture references for each.
1.God is a worker. (Gen. 1, Psalm 8 and 104, John 5:17)
2.The nature of work is good, not evil; it is from God. (Gen. 1, Psalm 104, Prov. 14:23)
3.God created people as workers; He created man in his own image. (Gen. 1)
4.Our work is to serve God, to glorify Him; His character is to be made known by the way we work. (Gen. 1:26-29, Prov. 31:10-31)
1.Briefly explain the 6 general realities to deal with as Career Counselors
1.Change in the work place is inevitable – structures, people and jobs.
2.4 to 8 career changes during a lifetime.
3.Everyone is a contingent worker; everyone’s employment is contingent on the results an organization can achieve.
4.Teamwork – project teams made up of people from different functions are the mechanisms through which much work is accomplished.
5.More geographic mobility required.
6.Retraining programs will become a significant education effort.
1.Define and briefly explain the differences between the two types of Calling, vocation and job. Give Scriptural references where applicable.
Two types of calling:
1.Primary ~ this call is the ‘to be’ call which precedes the ‘to do’ call (secondary); this calling is to repentance, faith, fellowship, and service.
2.Secondary ~ this call is the ‘to do’ call which is also referred to as vocation (what I do with my life work).
A job is a specific duty, role or function; a regular remunerative position. As noted in the types of callings, vocation is what one does with their life work
1.Briefly explain the 3 commitments one must make in discovering God’s will according to Sinclair Ferguson.
1.Commitment to understanding the Scriptures God’s revealed will
2.Commitment to follow the Principles of Conduct
3.Commitment to assessing yourself- Ability, opportunity, desire, counsel of others.
1.Name the 5 people (or groups) who formulated the theories making the most impact on research and/or practice and briefly describe their work/theory/findings.
Trait and factor theories stress individuals need to develop their traits, which include their interests, values, personalities, and aptitudes as well as select environments that are congruent with them. Both of these theory classifications have a psychological basis and they both assume that individuals can exert control over their lives so it is up to the career counselor to increase the level of self-direction.
1.Name the 5 people (or groups) who formulated the theories making the most impact on research and/or practice and briefly describe their work/theory/findings.
Holland Theory of Vocational Choice personality develops as a result of the interaction of inherited characteristics, the activities to which the individual is exposed and the interests and competencies that grow out to the activities. Personalities are realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional. Developed an occupational classification based on the model environment construct.
1.Name the 5 people (or groups) who formulated the theories making the most impact on research and/or practice and briefly describe their work/theory/findings.
Loftquist and Dawis Theory of Work Adjustment/TWA people have 2 types of needs biological and social acceptance. These needs give rise to drive states which in turn lead to volitional behavior. If need is satisfied continue to pursue that behavior.
1.Name the 5 people (or groups) who formulated the theories making the most impact on research and/or practice and briefly describe their work/theory/findings.
Developmental theories- assume that factors that influence career choices and development are related to stages of personal and psychological development
Stages of development are childhood, adolescence, mid-life, retirement and death
Each stage of life looks at how biological, physiological, sociological and cultural factors affect career choices.
1.Name the 5 people (or groups) who formulated the theories making the most impact on research and/or practice and briefly describe their work/theory/findings.
Donald Super- Life-span, life-space theory Super’s life-career rainbow: six life roles in schematic life space. Super has often stated that his view is a segmented theory consisting of several related propositions out of which he hopes an integrated theory ultimately emerges.
1.Name the 5 people (or groups) who formulated the theories making the most impact on research and/or practice and briefly describe their work/theory/findings.
Gottfredson-theory of Circumscription and compromise is concerned with how career aspirations develop. There are 4 assumptions that have much in common with Super and occupational stereotypes identical to Holland.
1.Name the 5 people (or groups) who formulated the theories making the most impact on research and/or practice and briefly describe their work/theory/findings.
Learning Theories look at the combination of the process by which an individual develops and the choice making process.
Krumboltz-Social learning theory says 4 major factors influence career decision-making genetics, environment, learning experiences and skill in approaching tasks.
Focused first on the learning processes that lead to one’s beliefs in their ability to be effective or lack of such belief and the learning processes that affected ones interests. Then these beliefs and interests and one’s self are used in the process of career decisions.
List 8 of the 10 criteria for evaluating assessment instruments according to Gysbers
1.Client goal or problem identification
2.Establishing a working relationship and defining roles
3.developing an understanding of the client’s characteristics and environment
4.making a diagnosis of the client’s problem
5.resolution of the problem that is identified
6.making an intervention
7.evaluating the impact of the intervention
8.terminating the intervention if its successful
What are the 6 characteristics of goals according to Gysbers?
1. Specific - not just “I need a new job”, but details about the kind of job, the amount of money, etc.
2. Observable – there is a way to measure whether the goal did or didn’t get achieved.
3. Time Specific.
4. Achievable – not overly optimistic, recognize obstacles and have a plan for overcoming
5. May need to be in writing – makes goal more concrete and provides a good reinforcement.
6. Articulated – the plan of action needs to be verbalized so it can be evaluated and then acted upon.
Briefly identify at least 3 factors prevalent today that suggest a need for career counseling.
1 in 10 adults need assistance each year in selecting, changing, or acquiring a new job.
Only 4 in 10 adults in USA are in current career as a result of conscious planning
Only 53 % believe they need additional training to maintain or increase their learning power.
33% of young workers (16-24 yrs) do not have the skills they need to perform entry-level, semi-skilled jobs. And there is no strategy in the country for changing this
From 1994 AARP report—less than 1/4 Americans between 65-74 describe themselves as retired; less than 1/3 75+ describe themselves as retired. Many are returning to the workplace either because of boredom or financial need.
What is the major point for each of the 4 major theories of career development?
1. Trait and Factor: stress that individuals need to develop their traits that include interests, values, personalities, and aptitudes, and then select work environments that correspond to these traits.
2. Developmental – assume that factors that influence career choices and development are related to stages of personal and psychological development.
3. Learning theories – look at the combination of the process by which an individual develops and the choice-making process (includes one’s beliefs).
4. Socio-economic –look at the influence of sociological and economic factors on the choice-making process.
1.Briefly describe the difference in the modernist or positivist philosophical thinking versus the postmodern or constructivist philosophy as they relate to career counseling.
Postmodern/Constructionist philosophy:
-includes newer theories
-assumptions
human behavior is non-linear and CANNOT be studied objectively
cause and effect relationships CANNOT be determined
individuals CANNOT be studied outside the context in which they function
research data CANNOT be generalized
researchers' values should guide the process
stories that clients tell are good sources of data
research is goal-free
-summary: focuses on stories of clients, uses qualitative assessment procedures, helps clients construct career goals based on their perceptions of the context in which they function
1.Briefly describe the difference in the modernist or positivist philosophical thinking versus the postmodern or constructivist philosophy as they relate to career counseling.
Modernist/Positivist philosophy:
-includes trait & factor, development and learning theories
-assumptions
humans behavior CAN be measured objectively if you use reliable valid instruments
human behavior CAN be studied outside the context in which it occurs
researcher's values will flaw the results
cause/effect relations occur and can be measured
results CAN be generalized to other people in similar settings
-summary: that the counselor is objective, is using reliable valid instruments and practice is based on empirical research that is well-designed
1.List the 3 personal (internal) and 3 external factors that influence the worker—career relationship and briefly differentiate between them.
Personal (Internal) factors
Generic- broadly shared with others, but contribute to the uniqueness of person
- gender (wage-gap issue, glass ceiling)
- Minority Status (upward mobility challenges and wage differences)
- Physique- Height and weight play a role; disabilities and impairments
- Sexual Orientation - career develop. differs for non heterosexuals
1.List the 3 personal (internal) and 3 external factors that influence the worker—career relationship and briefly differentiate between them.
Personal- psychological
-Aptitude- Specific capabilities required to learn, refers to specific psychological factors - cognitive, psycho motor, physical and sensory
- Interests- if a person likes something, they will be more highly motivated to succeed
- Personality- the sum total of a person's beliefs, perceptions and emotions
- Values- standards a person uses to judge own to others
1.List the 3 personal (internal) and 3 external factors that influence the worker—career relationship and briefly differentiate between them.
Personal- social
- Family socioeconomic status- creates exposure to various career options
- Access to education
- Lifestyle- factors in the home which influence careers ex. dual career family, single parent etc
1.List the 3 personal (internal) and 3 external factors that influence the worker—career relationship and briefly differentiate between them.
External Factors
- Work Situation- direct outgrowths of the job or work setting each is evaluated on O NET
- Training time- time needed to acquire general and specialized knowledge and skill for the job
- Physical demands- Strength; Climbing and balancing etc
- Environmental conditions- Inside or outside extremes of weather etc

Sociological
- Prestige ratings- intelligence required, training and education required
- Discrimination- Three types of racism- individual, institutional and cultural
also can be disc. by gender, sexual orient and age
- Mobility- to move up and down in a function or across
- Control of admission to specific occupations- long preparation periods, licenses and regulatory boards
- Regulating worker behavior on and off the job- code of ethics, degree of autonomy or reviews

Economic
- Effect of supply and demand- influencers - pay hiring practices, qualifications required
- Payment Systems- fees, compensation of employees, draw by owner
- Meaning of employment and unemployment- how people are counted, underemployment, discouraged worker
Briefly list and explain the 5 stages of the career counseling process.
(1) Establishing and structuring counselor-client relationship
- develop open relationship
- Give client guidelines for counseling process, discuss expectations of both parties
- Confidentiality
- Establish time and place to meet and develop plan
(2) Diagnosing problem/ assessment
- Clinical assessment - informal observations
- Formal assessment procedures to help client develop awareness
(3) Goal Setting
- Problem identification
- Make Specific goals
- Identify multiple goals and prioritize
(4) Intervention
- gather occupational information- generate ideas, clarify and eliminate
- Identify transferable skills- use check lists
- Multicultural considerations
- be aware of stereotypes
- consider client's values about time and keeping appts
- use counseling techniques that fit with clients verbal or non verbal preferences
- facilitate decision making
- Improve time perspective- need to guide to focus on future
- guided fantasy - process to help client awareness
(5) Evaluation
1.Explain the difference between qualitative and quantitative assessment devices; give 1 example of each and list its purpose and its target group.
Qualitative assessment:
1 example - genogram
the purpose - to get a graphic representation of careers of the client's family
target group - adults

Quantitative assessment:
1 example - COPS (Career Occupational Preference System)
the purpose - to reveal preferences for jobs in specific fields
target group - junior high thru college
1.List and briefly explain the 4 stage approach to test interpretation (Tinsley & Bradley)
1-Counselor prep: be familiar with test or inventory, the meaning of scores, how to integrate scores with other data, determine the order to present the test interpretation, review interpretation plans
2-Prepare clients for test interpretation: review purposes of test or inventory, discuss their experience when taking it, ask them to speculate scores
3-Deliver information: keep goals of test in mind, report scores and explain errors in measurement, avoid jargon, encourage reactions to the results, be encouraging and positive about results
4-Follow-up: discuss results in a follow-up session, continue to check client's understanding of results, continue to help integrate formal data with informal data
1.Name 1 group that can be classified as clients with special needs (according to the text). Explain 2 characteristics (problems/challenges) faced by this group and give 2 helpful counseling interventions.
A group that can be classified as clients with special needs (according to the text) is women in the workforce. Two (2) characteristics (problems/challenges) faced by this group are 1) women are paid significantly less than their male counterparts for the same job and work, and 2) women are more likely to choose and enter low paying occupations such as service jobs, sales areas, and administrative support. Two (2) helpful counseling interventions are 1) to inquire and attain information on whether the preliminary choices for occupation were made as a result of socialization and/or self-efficacy. You want to find out if other viable options have been eliminated because the client has been socialized to sex-type occupations. If this is the case you want to educate them on the difference in pay between service jobs/sales jobs/administrative support jobs and precision jobs/production jobs/craft jobs/and repair occupations. It was once believed that more education would close the gap on the disparity in wages based on education but that is not true because only about a quarter of the jobs in the labor force require a college education. 2) to prepare women for discrimination in the work place and to make them aware fo the services provided by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in the event that they have problems and/or complaints about their employers. The EEOC receives complaints of discrimination, investigates those complaints, and authorizes legal action if their investigation supports the allegations.
1.Name 1 group that can be classified as clients with special needs (according to the text). Explain 2 characteristics (problems/challenges) faced by this group and give 2 helpful counseling interventions.
FYI: This information comes from chapter 5, pages 106-132. The eight (8) groups of clients with special needs are as follows:

1) Individuals with disabilities, including mental or physical
2) Women
3) Displaced workers
4) Economically disadvantages workers
5) Cultural and ethnic minorities
6) Delayed entrants, including retirees who return to work, military personnel transitioning to the civilian workforce, and ex-offenders.
7) Mid-life job changers, including those who change jobs voluntarily as a result of re-evaluation and people who are forced ti find new jobs as a result of discharge, lay off, or compulsory retirement.
8) Older workers, including people who prefer work to retirement because of satisfaction needs and people who continue to work after retirement age because they are concerned about their economic well-being.
1.Choose 1 of the widely used CACGS and describe it. (Computer Assisted Career Guidance Systems)
Computer Assisted Career Guidance Systems (CACGS)
For the most part CACGS are free-standing software packages that are licensed from companies. There are six (6) CACGS described in chapter 8, pages 207 - 235, which are as follows:

1) Career Information System (CIS)
2) Guidance Information System (GIS)
3) DISCOVER
4) SIGI PLUS, previously known as SIGI
5) CHOICES (Computerized Heuristic Occupational Information and Career Exploration System)
6) C-LECT (Computer-Linked Exploration of Careers and Training)

The CIS was developed as the Oregon state system under a 1969 grant from the US Dept of Labor directed by Dr. Bruce McKinlay. A separate organization , National CIS, now exists to coordinate the application of CIS in other parts of the country to provide additional services in the development of software and the provision of training. CIS is the basic system in 13 states and New York City. Most CIS state systems include 2 types of files: state or local files and national files. It provides occupational info not career guidance. It is not designed to engage the user in decision making to help them narrow their lists of choices. It does not contain on line tests or inventories at the current time. It is one of the least expensive CACGS and can be individualized to meet the specific needs of a city or state.

The CIS State Files include:
1) Occupations: descriptions of at least 320 occupations. It includes the duties performed, aptitudes required to perform the job, nature of work setting, wages earned, and local labor market information including occupational outlook info and licensing and training info.
2) Programs of Study: lists in-state preparation programs for specific occupations, including 2 year and 4 year colleges and public and private vocational schools. It gives info about entry requirements, costs, and sources of additional info.
3) In-State Schools: entrance requirements, housing info, and costs for colleges, graduate schools, proprietary schools and other schools.
4) Local Financial Aid: state and local sources of financial assistance.
5) Job Search File: includes how to apply for jobs, develop a resume, and interview for a job.
6) OWN: tips for planning and owning your own business.
7) Industry: describes industries, the type of work provided, and industry outlook info.
8) Special Files: any additional info, for example, the GA CIS identifies skills that may be transferrable to another job.

The CIS National Files include:
1) National Schools: info on more that 700 colleges in the US (both 2 year and 4 year programs).
2) National Financial Aid: info about more than 1000 scholarship sponsors and 59,000 scholarships
3) Military Occupations and Worklife: jobs in the military
4) Special Files: additional info, same example about GA CIS identifying transferrable job skills.

CIS Information Access:
1) Quest: answer a series of questions about interests and work preferences and the user is provided a list of occupations.
2) Link: enter test scores from ASVAB or SDS and user is provided a list of occupations based on scores.
3) School Sort: answer a series of questions about types of schools desired and is given a list of potential schools.
4) Aid Sort: answers questions about school plans and needs and is given a list of potential sources of aid.
#8 Briefly explain the 3 commitments one must make in discovering God's will according to Sinclair Ferguson.
1. Commitment to understand the Scriptures God's revealed will-
-God gives direct commmandments and prohibitions to us
-God presents us with principals and illustrates and bibilographical accounts
2. Commintment to follow the Principals of Conduct
-is it lawful
-is it beneficial to me
-is it enslaving
-is it consistent with Christ's lordship
-is it helpful to others
-is it consistent with Biblical examples
3. Commitment Assessing yourself
-Ability opporunity, desire counsel of others
-narrow your possibilites
-consider your gifts, the needs, your personal desire
-seek counsel of others
#10 List 8 of the 10 criteria for evaluation assessment instruments according to Gysbers.
1.validity
2.reliability
3. cost
4. time of administering
5. clients response to the instrument
6. training needed to score the instrument
7. actual scoring of instrument
8. are there any norms available for what you are working with
9. training needed to interpret the instrument
10 usefulness to client