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120 Cards in this Set

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The ___ ___ is composed of the skin and its accessory organs, incluing epithelial, connective tissue, nerves, sweat, oil glands.
Integumentary system
The study of skin disease
Dermatology
A physician who specialized in the the study of skin...
Dermatologist
___ ___ is often the diagnostic tool used first to determine disorders of the skin.
Direct observation
Some tests used to determine the origin of a skin disorder are (3)...
allergy skin testing, laboratory tests for blood dyscrasias (eg. leukemia, lupus) and blood glucose tests for diabetes.
Use of a special highpressure mercury lamp that produces long-wave UV rays to diagnose pigmentary abnormalities and detect superficial fungal and bacterial skin infections.
Wood's light
Examination of cells/fluids form vesicles (blisters), such as those found in herpes zoster and varicella - applied to a glass slide, then stained/exam. under a microscope.
Tzanck's smear
The procedure of removing of a skin-tissure specimen with scalpel, punch instrument or shaving tech. for micro. ream to rule out malignancy or to diagnose a skin disorder.
Biopsy
To diagnose scabies
Scabies scraping
Itching, often a symptom of a skiin disease but also arise from other systemic disorders (liver disease, iron def., CA, DM, or thyroid disturb.)
Pruritus
Often helpful for severe pruritus...
Hypnosis
The dry crust that result after trauma (eg. decubitus ulcers), infection or injury.
Eschar
Used not only to cleanse but also to soothe te skin, promote healing, relieve itching and help remove eschar.
Therapeutic baths
___ ___ offer a way of applying medication to the entire body at one time, provides warmth and enables the client to perform PT & ROM exercises more comfortably.
Therapeutic baths
Water no hotter than 100 degrees F
tepid
___ ___ are applied to reduce swelling and weeping in acute dermatitis, to soften and revove exudate and crust, and to relieve pruritus and discomfort.
Moist packs (dressings)
Moist packs (dressings)may be clean or sterile depending on...
whether the client's skin is intact.
Moist packs (dressings)may be ___ or ___.
closed or open
Closed moist packs (dressings) are...
covered by plastic or a firm material.
Open moist packs (dressings) are...
not covered, because the lack of o2 may cause tissue necrosis.
On moist dressings (packs) many solutions can be used such as... (3)
Aluminum acetate (Burow's sol.), silver nitrate, and potassium permanganate.
In a wound, the protective tissue formed.
denuded
The process of removeing loose skin, crusts or denuded tissue...
debridement
Debridement is a ___ ___ that is often performed when chging moist packs.
sterile procedure
Used to cover areas of skiin lost through wounds, burns or infection...
skin grafts
Two may. types of skin grafts...
Free grafts and pedicule grafts.
The type of skin graft in which the skin is completely removed from its original site...
free graft
The type of skin graft in which one end of the graft remains attached to the donor site sot that it can continue to recieve nourishment until new circulation is established. The other end is attached to the recipient site on the same clients body.
pedicle graft
A __ __ is used when a large arean ofskin is to be replaced, such as on an ear, part of a hand or foot, or a large part of the face.
A pedicle graft
A type of skin lesion that is flat, discolored spot with sharp borders (freckle).
Macule
A type of skin lesion that has solid elevations without fluid with sharp borders (mole).
Papule
A type of skin lesion that has palpable, solid, elevated mass (wart, lg. lipoma)
Nodule (distinct borders), tumor (extending deep into dermis)
A type of skin lesion that has small distinct elevation with fluid (blister caused by herpes simplex).
Vesicle
A type of skin lesion that has a lg distinct elevation with fluid (lg. friction/burn blister).
Bulla
A type of skin lesion that is a visicle or bulla with purulent fluid (acne, carbuncles).
Pustule
A type of skin lesion that has localized area of edema, often irregular and of variable size and color (hives, insect bite).
Wheal
A type of skin lesion that is larger, flat, elevated, solid surface (Psoriasis).
Plaque
A type of secondary skin lesion that is thin or thick flake of skin varying color; usually desquamated, dead epithelium (dandruff).
Scale
A type of secondary skin lesion that is dried residue of exudates (residue of impetigo).
Crust
A type of secondary skin lesion that is a linear crach in the skin (athlete's foot).
Fissure
A type of secondary skin lesion that is an openiing in the skin caused by sloughing of necrotic tissue, extending past the epidermis (bedsore).
Ulcer
Condition often more irritating and difficult to control than pain.
Pruritus
Commonly called hives, is characterized by the sudden appearance of edematous, raised pink areas called wheals that itch and burn.
Urticaria
The most common contact allergens are... (8)
soap, nickel-based jewelery, perfume, dyes, plants (poison ivy), chemicals, rubber and insecticides.
___ and ___ are thought to be important aggravating factors of allergens.
Stress & anxiety
Uricaria (hives) that last for more than 6 weeks is called...
chronic uricaria
___ asociated with urticaria is only a temporary annoyance unless it involves extensive vital areas.
Edema
___ (swelling) can be a life-threatening condition that is similar to urticaria but involves deeper dermal and subcutaneous tissues.
Angioedema
Angioedema associated with urticaria can become life threatening. Assess the client for the following... (3)
Extreme swelling of the lips, swelling around the eyes, dyspnea.
Skin condition that occurs when areas of the skin are completely lacking in pigmentation (pale, white)
Vitiligo
Also known as atopic dermatitis. Persistent iritation and scratching make the skin appear leathery and thick..
Eczema
This condition causes small visciles to appear, as well as reddened and pruritic skin. Sometimes the viscles burst and ooze, forming crusts...
Eczema
The treatment goal in eczema is to...
prevent skin dryness, cracking and itching.
Clients with eczema are advised to avoid...
soaps that are alkaline or lanolin and wool.
A chronic, noncontagious, proliferative skin disorder tht most commonly affect young adults and people in early middle age...
Psoriasis
The hallmark of psoriasis is ...
red papules covered with silvery, yellow-white scales that the client constantly sheds. The patches appear mainly on the ext. surfaces of the elbows & knees, the scalp and on the lower back.
Loosening of the nails at the beginnings of the fingertips (sign of psoriasis)...
onycholysis
Treatment of psoriasis is never completelly successful. The main objective is to (2)...
reduce scaling and itching.
These are small, flesh-colored, brown or yellow papules caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV)...
warts (verrucae)
Another name for warts...
verrucae
Papules found most often on the hands, especially in children, or on other sites often subjected to trauma.
Common warts
Papules that are slender, soft, thin, finger-like growths seen primarily on the face and neck...
Filiform warts
Papules that are firm, elevated, or flat lesion occuring on the soles or palms...
Plantar or palmar warts
Warts that grow in warm, moist body areas, often spread my sexual contact...
condylomata acuminata or vernereal warts.
Most commonly caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal bacteria, is contagious among infants and young children...
Impetigo
Staphylococcal infection starting around the fair follicle. Prolonged moisture, trauma, and poor hygiene often contribute to this problem...
Folliculitis
Folliculitis may lead to the production of a ____, also called a boil.
Furuncle
___ are found most frequently in areas of hair-bearing skin that are subject to friction, iritation and moisture, especially the face, scalp, buttocks and axillae.
Furuncles
A term for recurrent boils, devekops in individuals who are unable to get rid of the Staphylococcus organism...
Furunculosis
Composed of several interconnectin boils in a cluster. Usually drains at multiple sites; commonly found on the back of the neck, the back and the thighs.
Carbuncle
Skin infestation caused by mites that burrow under the outer layer of the host's skin...
Scabies
Red spots appear in this parasitic skin condition, with a row of blackish dots that are one-eight to one-half inch long with tiny vesicles and depressions. Usually between the fingers or wrists, front of the elbow, axillary folds, nipples, umbilicus, lower abdm, genitalia and between the buttocks...
Scabies
Another name for between the buttocks
gluteal cleft
Humans can be infested by three kinds of lice...
Peduculus homanus capitis (head), pediculus humanus corporis (body) and peduculus pubis (pubic area).
Lice survive by...
sucking blood
Lice are difficult to eradicate because...
their eggs, called nits, can live for a long time in bedding, clothes, upholster furniture.
S&S of lice include (2)...
presence of nits (eggs) and extreme pruritus (itching).
Cimex lectularius
bedbug
The bedbug, cimex lectularius, measures 4-5 millimeters and can...
survive up to 1 year without food, live in bedding & clothing and are difficult to reradicate.
An excessive sebaceous dischg that forms lg scales/cheese-like plugs on the body is known as...
seborrhea
Dry form of seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by scales ranging from sm dry flakes to thick and powdery, with little or not redness...
dandruff
Tramatic injuries that result in tissue loss or damage. This condition destroys cells by increasing capillary permeability and damaging cellular proteins.
Burns
Burns may be classified by (2)...
mechanism of injury and according to burn depth and size.
Most common type of burns, caused by steam, not water scalds, flames and direct contact with heat sources...
Thermal burns
Potentially life threatening burns caused by shocks due to exposure to electricity or lightning...
Electrical burns
Burns caused by exposure to acids, alkalis, or other organic substances.
Chemical burns
Burns that are the results of exposure to radioactive sources
RADIATION BURNS
THE SEVERITY OF A BURN INJURY IS RELATED TO (4)...
the burn's depth, extent, location and length of exposure to the burn agent.
Other factors that affect burn recovery time include (3)...
age, med hx of concurrent disorders and amt of ersp injury from smoke inhalation.
Burn mechanisms (4)...
thermal, electrical, chemical and radiation burns
Burn depth and size classifications (2)...
partial-thickness and full-thickness.
During the resuscitative phase of burn injury management the main goal is to...
achieve physiologic stability.
During the acute phase of burn injury management the focus is on...
managing the burn wound.
___ ___ is often the cause of death for client who do not have noticable external burns.
Smoke inhalation (lung burns)
The client who has burns loses body fluids from (2)...
capillary leaks and open wounds.
The leading cause of death for people with burns...
infection.
For burns, open dressings are continously applies as wet dressings because...
wounds heal better if kept moist, so closed dressings are not often used.
Pressure dressings applied to specific burn areas help to prevent the deveopment of...
keloids (scar tissue)
In assessing a burn wounds condition extra dry indicates...
dehydration
In assessing a burn wounds condition wet, soupy and strong odor indicates...
infection
In assessing a burn wounds condition redness and swelling at the edge of the wound indicates...
cellulitis
In assessing a burn wounds condition clean, pink and shiny indicates...
healthy healing
Topical agents for burn wound application currently most widely used include (4)...
Mafenide acetate, silver sulfadiazine, bacitracin ointment, silver nitrate.
Physicians now use ___ ___ for excision of eschar. This method causes minimal blood loss and less pain than previously used methods.
laser scalpels
___ ___ involves the application proteolytic substances that digest necrotic tissue.
Enzymatic debridement
If a client has enough undamaged skin, an ___ using one's own skin is done.
autograph
Cadaver skin or skin from another person
homograft or allograft
graft of pigskin (promotes healing although rejected)
heterograft or zenograft
biopsied, grown (cultured) new skin
cultured epithelial autografts (CEA)
Burned clients may need as much as ___ calories aday
6,000
Rehabilitative stage of burn recovery may last...
for months or years.
incision in eschar
escharotomy - may be needed if circulation or diff. in moving, breathing occurs.
various complications from burns include (6)...
infection, gen. GI disturb, hypostactic pneumonia, kidney failure, anemia, skin ulcers, contractures.
___ most serious long-term complication of burns. Preventable with passive & active ROM exercises.
Contractures (due to abn shortening of muscles, tendons, or scar tissue. Results in deformity & limited joint movement.
Splinting the extremities in anti-deformity positon is essential in preventing...
contractures.
___ ___ ___ is the treatment of choice for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
Moh's micrographic surgery
Most common form of skin cancer in caucasion adults. Appears on head/neck and usually does not metastasize...
basal cell carcinoma
Second most common type of skin cancer found in caucasians. Found on the rim of ear, face, lips or mouth...
Squamous cell carcinoma
The most virulent of all skin cancers, but almost always curable in its early stages. Has a strong tendancy to metastasize to the skin, bone, liver, brain and lung.
Milainant melanoma
Single most effective chemotherapeutic drug for malignant melnoma...
Dacarbazine (DTIC)