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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Five types of Cardiovascular Disease
Coronary Heart Disease
Congestive Heart Failure
Hypertension
Stroke
Peripheral Artery Disease
Congestive Heart Failure
Decrease in cardiac output (HRxSV) with consequent decreases in flow to the kidneys (inc. Na and H2O retention
Compensatory mechanisms designed to maintain tissue perfusion.
Right Sided CHF
Congestion of Peripheral tissue
Edema and Ascites
Left Side CHF
Pulmonary congestion
Pulmonary edema

MNT 2g Na diet, possible fluid restriction
"Heart Healthy Diet
Coronary Heart Disease
Types and Causes
CHD CAD IHD
Major Causes:
- Atherosclerosis
- Hypertension
- Inflammation
Coronary Heart Disease
Pathophysiology 4
Injury to the Cell Wall Due to:
- High LDL Levels
- HTN
- Infection
- Homocysteine

INJURY=INFLAMMATION
Inflammatory Response
Monocytes
Migrate into vessels stimulated by oxidized LDL, then differentiate into macrophages.
Inflammatory Response
Macrophages
Produce cytokines, which increase smooth muscle cells (source of inflammation mediators such as CRP)
Inflammatory Response
Foam Cell
A macrophage that has engulfed a lipid molecule. Which then leads to a fatty streak.
Inflammatory Response
Atherosclerosis Plaque
Formed through the hardening of fatty streaks and foam cells.
Causes:
- Blood Clots
- Narrowing of the Vessels
Inflammatory Response
CRP Highest in? 5
Smokers
Obese Patients
Insulin Resistence
Metabolic Syndrome
DM II
C-Reactive Protein CRP
Levels
The most useful clinical marker of cardiovascular inflamation
<1mg/ml Low

1-3mg/ml avg

>3mg/ml High
Usefulness of CRP
Use of CRP levels are at the discretion of the physician
Recommended in patients who present with risk factors in a global assessment.
Lipoproteins
Levels (LDL HDL TG CHOL.)
LDL <100 optimal; >160 High

HDL <40 Low; >60 High

TG <150 optimal; >200 High

Cholesterol <200 Desirable
How to Decrease LDL 2
Decrease saturated fat intake
Lose Weight if overweight
How to Increase HDL 3
Lose weight if overweight
Stop smoking
Increase Excercise
How Lower TG
Lose weight if overweight
Increase intake of omega 3 FA
Increase excercise
Risk Factors
Age, family history, diabetes, established CVD, elevated LDL, smoking, HTN, Low HDL, metabolic Syndrome, sedentary lifestyle.
ATP Guideline
Sat Fat, Chol, Fiber
Sat Fat (7%)

Chol: 200mg

Fiber 20-30g and high diet in fruits and vegetables.