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149 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The heart, trachea, and esophagus form a midline portion called what?
Mediastinum
What circulation brings deoxygenated blood to the heart and then to the lungs?
Pulmonary circulation
What circulation brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart and then off to the tissues?
Systemic circulation
What are the primary functions of the heart?
Generates BP, routes blood, regulates blood supply by alternating rate and force of contraction to match metabolic needs
What is the double layered membrane around the heart?
Pericardium
Which layer of the pericardium prevents overdistension?
Fibrous pericaridum
Which pericardial layer anchors the heart in the mediastinum?
Fibrous pericardium
The parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium make up what layer?
Serous pericardium
What is located between the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium to help decrease friction between tissues as heart beats?
Pericardial cavity
What is an inflammatory response to a bacterial infection of pericardium which decreases the amount of fluid produced?
Pericarditis
What is synonymous with the epicardium?
Visceral pericardium
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
What is the name of the flap like structures that are located on the superior, anterior surface of the atria?
Auricles
What is the former name of the area at which the fossa ovalis is located?
Foramen ovale
What returns doxygenated blood from the heart tissue itself?
Coronary sinus
What are the receiving chambers called?
Atria
What are the distributing chambers called?
Ventricles
What are the purpose of the atrioventricular valves?
To allow blood from the atria to the ventricles but prevent back flow of blood into atria
What is the name of the right atrioventricular valve?
Tricuspid valve
What is the name if the left atrioventricular valve?
Bicuspid/mitral valve
What is responsible for closing the atrioventricular valves shut?
Chordae tendinae
What is the route of pulmonary circulation?
deoxy blood from tissues --> vena cavae --> r. atrium --> tricuspid valve --> r. ventricle --> pul SL valve --> pulm trunk --> pulm arteries --> lungs
What is the route of systemic circulation?
oxy blood from lungs --> pulm vein -->left atrium --> bicuspid valve --> left ventricle --> aortic SL valve --> aorta --> tissues
What are specialized cardiac muscle cells gap functions to allow electrical activity to jump from one cell to the next?
Intercalated disks
Which cellular component makes up most of the heart?
Contractile cells
What causes the beginning of depolarization from RMP to rise to threshold?
Some NA channels opening
What causes the steep uprise in depolarization in contractile cells?
Many Na channels opening (Na influx)
What happens during the plateau phase in contractile cells?
Slow Ca channels open, inhibiting polarization (prevents tetany) and K permeability decreases further delaying repolarization
What happens during repolarization in contractile cells?
Membrane permeability to K increases allowing K efflux and Ca channels close
What conductile tissue is known as the pacemaker because it depolarizes the fastest and begins the sequence of excitation?
Sinoatrial node (SA)
What is the name of the connection between the SA node and the AV node?
Internodal Pathway
What is the name of the conductile tissue that is the site of depolarization delay?
Atrioventricular (AV) node
What is the purpose of the AV nodal delay?
To allow the atria to fully contract and empty blood into the ventricles before the ventricles are stimulated
What is the name of the conductile tissue that carries AP toward the ventricles and branches at the interventricular septum?
Bundle of His
What is the name of the conductile tissue that causes the ventricles to contract in the apex to base direction?
Purkinje fibers
An RMP does not exist in conductile or contractile cells?
Conductile
What causes the steep uprise at threshold in conductile cells?
Ca influx thru LONGERLASTING Ca channels
What happens during the gradual depolarization process of conductile cells?
Constant Na influx, decrease permeability to K, Ca influx thru TRANSIENT Ca channels
What is happening during the repolarization process in conductile tissues?
K efflux increases
What is the relationship between conductile cells and contractile cells?
Conductile cells fire APs that initiate APs in contractile cells
What is the purpose of an electrocardiogram?
It uses electrodes placed on surface of body to detect a summation of all Aps traveling the the heart at any given time and displays electrical events responsible for mechanical events
What is the Pwave described as?
Atrial depolarization
What does the T wave represent?
Ventricular repolarization
What does the QRS complex represent?
Ventricular depolarization
When does atrial repolarization occur?
hidden by ventricular depolarization/QRS
What is the first heart sound described as?
Lubb
What is the second heart sound described as?
Dupp
What causes the first heart sound?
Vibrations of AV valves closing at beginning of ventricular systole
What causes the second heart sound?
Vibrations of SL valves closing at the beginning of ventricular diastole
What is the name of the condition described as high heart rate (100-250 BPM)?
Tachycardia
What condition describes HR less than 60 BPM?
Brachycardia
What is the term for any variation from normal sequence of excitation in the heart?
Arrhythmias
What is described as cessation of the P-wave and causes a decrease in heartrate because AV node takes over as the pacemaker?
SA nodal block
What increases during an AV nodal block and degree is based on delay time?
Interval b/w P-wave & QRS
What happens during the AV nodal block?
Ventricles dont receive all the atrial impulses
What stage of an AV nodal block is the P wave totally disassociated from the QRS?
3rd degree
What AV nodal block degree consists of some P-waves that trigger the QRS and some do not?
2nd degree
What condition is described as very rapid, highly uncoordinated myocardial contractions resulting an irreversible tissue damage and even death of person?
Ventricular fibrillation
What is the term for the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute?
Cardiac Output
Cardiac output is determines by what?
Multiplying HR and stroke volume
What is the term for the amount of blood pumped by the heart per beat?
Cardiac output
What is the concept that the more ventricular muscle is stretched, the more forceful the subsequent contraction will be?
Starling's Law
What is the term for the amount of blood entering the right atrium from the vena cavae?
Venous return
If the venous return is high what will be the result to cardiac output?
Increases
What is the name of regulation with in the heart?
Intrinsic
What is the name for regulation of mechanisms origninating outside of the heart?
Extrinsic
What is the primary method of extrinsic regulation of the heart?
Neural control by the autonomic nervous system
Where is the vagal center located?
Medulla Oblongata
What part of the autonomic system does the vagal center control?
Parasympathetic
What does the parasympathetic system do to heart rate?
Decreases heart rate
Where is the preganglionic origin in the parasympathetic system?
Vagus (X) in carotid
What neurotransmitter(s) is/are released from the postganglion in the parasympathetic system?
ACH
What is the name of the receptor on the heart that neurotransmitters bind to in the parasympathetic system?
Muscarinic
What is specific receptor does the preganglionic neurotransmitter bind to in the parasympathetic system?
N1
What channel(s) open as ACH binds to muscarinic receptors?
K+ (efflux)
What happens to the AV nodal delay in the parasympathetic nervous system?
Increases
Where is the Vasomotor center located?
Medulla Oblongata
The vasomotor center controls which part of the autonomic system?
Sympathetic
What does the vasomotor center do to heartrate?
Increases
What is the preganglionic origin in the sympathetic system?
Spinal nerves T1-L2
What neurotransmitter(s) is/are released from the postganglion in the sympathetic system?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What receptors do the neurotransmitters bind to on the heart in the sympathetic nervous system?
Beta 1
Beta 1 receptor stimulation causes what channels to open?
Ca
What happens to the AV nodal delay in the sympathetic nervous system?
Decreases
What blood vessels carry blood to the capillaries from the arteries?
arterioles
What layer of the blood vessel consists of endothelium, basement membrane (epithelium) and lamina propria?
Tunica Intima
Which layer of the blood vessel is in direct contact with the blood?
Tunica Intima
Which layer of the blood vessel is made of smooth muscle in order to vasoconstrict/vasodilate?
Tunica media
What type of stimulation is required in order for vasoconstriction to occur?
Sympathetic
What type of stimualtion is required to yield vasodilation?
Lack of sympathetic
Which blood vessel layer is composed of collagen fibers that anchor vessels to surround strcutures?
Tunica Adventitia
What is the outermost layer of blood vessels?
Tunica Adventitia
What is the fxn of the arterial system?
Transports oxygenated blood from heart to tissues
What type of arteries have the ability to expand and hold blood when heart is in active systole, then snap back in diastole for continuous blood flow?
Elastic/conducting arteries
What are the largest group of arteries?
Elastic/conducting arteries
The majority of elastin is found in what layer of the blood vessels?
Tunica media
What group of arteries have the thickest tunica media containing smooth muscle?
Muscular/distributing arteries
Which group of arteries is more active in vasodilation and vasoconstriction and less destensibility?
Muscular/distributing arteries
Vasoconstriction/vasodilation of arterioles is determined by what?
Amount of blood flow to capillaries serving the tissues
What are the smallest venous vessels?
Venules
What layers of the blood vessels do larger venules contain? smaller?
Tunica intima and thin tunica media; tunica intima
Veins can hold up to how much of our total blood volume at any given time?
65%
What blood vessels are also known as "blood reservoirs"?
Veins
What do veins have to prevent excess pooling of blood and ensure one-way blood flow toward the heart?
Venous valves
What is the term for the actual volume of blood folwing thru a vessel, an organ, or entire circulation at a given time?
Blood flow
What is the term for the force exerted by blood on arterial walls?
Blood Pressure
What is the term for the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes thry peripheral circulation?
Total Peripheral Resistance
How do you calculate blood pressure?
BP = CO * TPR
What two factors determine TPR?
Vessel diameter, blood viscosity
If you have a low diameter what will happen to the TPR?
Increases
What are the two regulations of blood pressure?
Neural and chemical
What are the receptors involved in neural (short-term) regulation of blood pressure that monitor minute to minute fluctuations in BP?
Baroreceptors
Where are the baroreceptors located?
Arch of aorta, bifurcation of carotids
What type of signals are sent to the CNS when a sudden change in BP has occured?
Afferent
Which nerve sends afferent signals from receptors at the aorta?
Vagus (X)
Which nerve sends afferent signals from receptors at the bifurcation of the carotids?
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
What causes afferent signals to be sent to the VMC center and then what will the response be?
Decrease BP; Increase BP
What causes afferent signals to be sent to the VC center and then what will the response be?
Increase BP; Decrease BP
If the Vagal center is stimulated, what receptors on the heart will be activated?
Muscarinic
If the Vasomotor center is stimulated, what receptors on the heart will be activated? on the blood vessels?
Beta 1; alpha 1
What will the end result be if alpha 1 receptors on the blood vessels are activated?
BP increases
How do you calculate blood pressure?
BP = CO * TPR
What two chemicals can regulate BP?
Antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin and renin
What two factors determine TPR?
Vessel diameter, blood viscosity
If you have a low diameter what will happen to the TPR?
Increases
What are the two regulations of blood pressure?
Neural and chemical
What are the receptors involved in neural (short-term) regulation of blood pressure that monitor minute to minute fluctuations in BP?
Baroreceptors
Where are the baroreceptors located?
Arch of aorta, bifurcation of carotids
What type of signals are sent to the CNS when a sudden change in BP has occured?
Afferent
Which nerve sends afferent signals from receptors at the aorta?
Vagus (X)
Which nerve sends afferent signals from receptors at the bifurcation of the carotids?
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
What causes afferent signals to be sent to the VMC center and then what will the response be?
Decrease BP; Increase BP
What causes afferent signals to be sent to the VC center and then what will the response be?
Increase BP; Decrease BP
If the Vagal center is stimulated, what receptors on the heart will be activated?
Muscarinic
If the Vasomotor center is stimulated, what receptors on the heart will be activated? on the blood vessels?
Beta 1; alpha 1
What will the end result be if alpha 1 receptors on the blood vessels are activated?
BP increases
What two chemicals can regulate BP?
Antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin and renin
Where is vasopressin synthesized?
Hypothalamus
Antidiuretic hormone is released by what?
Post. pituitary
What causes ADH to be released?
Low BP
What is the target tissue of ADH?
Kidneys
How does ADH increase blood pressure?
It increases water retention which increases the overall blood volume which will increase BP
Where is renin synthesized?
Kidneys
Where is renin released?
Kidneys
What causes renin to be released?
Low BP
What is the role of renin within the bloodstream?
Its an enzyme to catalyze Angiotensin II
What is the target tissue of Angiotensin II?
Adrenal cortex of adrenal gland
What corticoid hormone is releases when Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex?
Aldosterone
What is the purpose for Aldosterone?
It travels to the kidneys to cause an increase in NaCl retention, which will increase water retention, to an overall increase in BP