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13 Cards in this Set

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amount of blood pumped from left ventricle with each beat
stroke volume
amount of blood pumped per min.
cardiac output
amount of blood filling the left ventricle is reflected in the.....
preload
the_______reflects the reistance to flow of blood across the aortic valve or through the blood vessels
afterload
increases heart rate
epinephrine
increases force of contraction
(neurochemical means)
norepinephrine
sympathetic receptors divided into alpha and beta receptors do what to the heart?
stimulate it to work harder or faster

therefore beta and alpha blockers block these receptors reducing workload of the heart.
parasympathetic nervous system has neurotransmitters that do what?
decrease the heart rate.
sympathetic: Adrenergic receptors cause what?
increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, decreased blood flow to kidneys, and other effects. FLIGHT OF FLIGHT RESPONSE.
cardiac output=
heart rate X stroke volume
ejection fraction or proportion that is pumped out=
stroke volume/end diastolic volume of left ventricle

what is pumped out / what is still left in ventricle
what is a normal ejection fraction range?
55-75

values below 40 indicate poor cardiac output because of impaired pumping action.

values above 75 can indicate hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
the normal rhythm of the cardiac contraction is initiated by the____ in the _____atrium
Sinoatrial Node (SA) , right atrium