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37 Cards in this Set

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INOTROPIC
Contraction of heart muscle
squeeze
CHRONOTROPIC
Heart Rate
Similar to a ticking clock
DROMOTROPIC
Conduction of electrical impulses in the heart
electric
CHF - Congestive Heart Failure treated by these two types of drugs
Glycosides and Diuretics: Thiazides, Loop, Potassium sparing, Osmotic, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Treat the back up in heart
Type of drug to treat Hypertension
Anti-hypertensive Agents: Sympatholitic, Vasodilating, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE)
renin stimulates constriction of heart
Drugs to treat Hypercholesterol
Anti-lipemics: Bile sequestering agents and Cholesterol synthesis inhibitors
Cholesterol lowering agents
Drugs used to treat Angina
Anti-Angina agents: Nitrates, Beta Adrenergic Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers
Stops the chest pain in 3 ways
brady-
slow
tachy-
fast
SVT
Supraventricular Tachycardia
ECG
Electrocardiogram
stat
immediately
SL
sublingual
Dynamics of Thiazides

Chlorothiazide - Diurel
Interfere with transport of Na ions across renal epithelium
Keeps water in kidneys to flush system
Side effects of Thiazides
Orthostatic hypotension
Hyponatremia
Hypokalemia
Na and K levels
BP
Drug Interactions of Thiazides
Oral Hypoglycemics
Corticosteroids
Digoxin
d/t diuresis meds may not stay in system for wanted effects
Nursing considerations for Thiazides
Crosses placenta and secreted in breast milk, monitor serum Na and K+ levels, administer in AM or early afternoon (to prevent interruption of sleep) d/t increased diuresis
Kinetics of Loop Diuretics
RAPID onset
Produces greater volume of diuresis than other diuretics
Dynamics of Loop Diuretics

Furosemide - Lasix
Inhibit Na reabsorption by direct action on ascending Loop of Henle
Side effects of Loop diuretics
Orthostatic hypotension
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
same as Thiazides
Drug Interactions of Loop Diuretics
Oral hypoglycemic agents
Lithium
Digoxin
Phenytoin
rapid excretion
Important nursing considerations for Loop Diuretics
Monitor serum potassium and sodium levels, monitor diabetic patient's serum glucose level
Dynamics of Potassium sparing Diuretics

Spironolactone - Aldactone
Decreases secretion of K+ and increases secretion of Na and Cl
it's in the name
Side effects of Potassium sparing diuretics
Muscle cramps
Orthostatic hypotension
Increased potassium, increased heartbeat and hyperkalemia
Nursing considerations for Potassium-sparing diuretics
Monitor for hyperkalemia - Confusion, muscle weakness, arrhythmias, diarrhea; Monitor serum electrolyte levels; administer meds in AM
Drug interactions of Potassium sparing diuretics
K+ supplements - can cause overload
Digoxin
Salicylates
Route for Osmotic diuretic
Only given IV
Dynamic of Osmotic diuretic

Mannitol
Shift of fluid from entire body
Increase excretion of water, sodium, and chloride by increasing osmoality of the plasma
Side effects of Osmotic diuretics
CIRCULATORY OVERLOAD - build up of fluid, kidney overworked
tachycardia
h/a
blurred vision
urinary retention
Nursing consideration for Osmotic diuretic
STRICT RECORD OF INTAKE AND OUTPUT must be equal amount
fluids
Dynamics of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Acetazolamide
INDUCE DIURESIS - very poor
reduces aqueous humor formation
Therapeutic - Glaucoma
Drug interactions of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Sulfa Drugs
Dynamics of Cardiac Glycosides

Digoxin - Lanoxin
Positive inotropic action
Drug interactions of Cardiac Glycosides
Potassium sparing diuretics
Beta-Adrenergic Blockers
Signs of Digitalis Toxicity
RESTLESSNESS, IRRITABILITY
CONFUSION, DISORIENTATION
BLURRED VISION
WHITE HALOS ON DARK OBJECTS
n/v/d
Arrhythmias - d/t potassium
Normal Therapeutic drug level of Digoxin
0.5 - 2.0 ng/ml
Normal Serum Potassium Level
3.5 - 5.0