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82 Cards in this Set

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ACE
angiotensin converting enzyme
adrenergic
drug that causes increased contractility of the heart and vasoconctriction of the blood vessels
anticoagulant
drug that inhibits or delays blood from clotting
antihypertensive
drug that lowers high blood pressure
antilipemic
drug that lowers the level of lipids in the blood
arteriosclerosis
thickening of the walls of the arterioles with a loss of elasticity and ability to contract
atherosclerosis
accumulation of cholesterol and lipids on the walls of the arteries
cardiac arrest
sudden cessation of breathing and of sufficient circulation of blood by the heart
cardiac glycoside
drug that strenghtens the force of the myocardial contraction, slows the heart, and improves the tone of the myocardium
coronary
pertaining to the heart vessels
diastolic pressure
force of the blood when the heart is at rest between contractions; lowest point at which sounds are heard when taking a B.P.
dyspnea
labored of difficult breathing
diuretic
drug that reduces fluid volume in the body by stimulating urine flow
dysrhthmia
any deviation from the normal rhythm of the heartbeat; als referred to as arrythmia
embolus
small amount of fat or air or a blood clot that circulates in the blood until it lodges in a blood vessel
fibrillate
to quiver or contract spontaneously, causing ineffective contractions of the heart
hematinic
drug that increases the hemoglobin content in the blood; also called antianemic
hematoma
a collection of blood in an organ or tissue caused by a break in a blood vessel
hemoglobin
iron-containing substance that carries oxygen from the lungs and to the tissues
hemoptysis
coughing up blood
hemostatic
drug used to help in the formation of blood clots
interstitial fluid
fluid that fills most of the cells of the body and provides a large portion of the liquid environment of the body
leukemia
general term to describe a group of malignant conditions affecting the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow, lymph system, and spleen
myocardial infarction
"heart attack" or death of a part of the heart muscle due to lack of oxygen
phlebitis
inflammation of a vien
point of maximum impulse (PMI)
heartbeat felt at fifth intercostal space, about two inches left of midline
systolic pressure
force of blood pushing against the artery walls when the ventricles contract; the first tap-like sound heard when measuring blood pressure
thrombolytic
drug that is capable of dissolving bood clots
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vien blocked by a thrombus
thrombosis
condition in which a blood clot, or thrombus, is formed within a blood vessel
vasodilator
drug that expands blood vessels; used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
What is a loading dose?
a large intial dose of a substance or series of such doses given to rapidly achieve a therapeutic concentration in the body.
(Hypertensive, loading dose may be lower)
What are some of the general side effects you watch for with cardiac meds?
headache(H/A) light headedness, orthostatic hypotension, unsual bleeding urine stool, palpitations
What is the knowledge needed for administering cardiac meds?
check dose
observe pts. for side effects
educate pts.
help pts. with lifestyle
changes
DON'T CRUSH
What do vasoconstrictors do?
They raise blood pressure by causing the blood vessels to contract.
What do calcium channel blockers do?
they inhibit the transport of calcium into the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, this decreases mayocardial contractions & the demand for O2
they also dilate coronary arteries
what do beta blockers do?
block beta-adrenergic substances such as adrenaline (epinephrine)They slow the heart beat, lessen the force with which the heart muscle contracts and reduce blood vessel contraction in the heart
What do alpha blockers do?
block a-adrenergic recepters in arteries & smooth muscles
What do antiarrhythmics, antidysrhythmic do?
they stabilze the heart muscle so that it does not flutter of beat to rapidly.
What is another drug that is in the same class as Diuretics?
antihypertensive
What are the drug names of some vasodilators?
Nitroglycerin
Clonidine hydrochloride
Prazosin
Hydralazine
What are the drug names of some Antiarrhythmics, Antidysrhythmics?
Quinidine
Propranolol
Procainamide
What are the drug names of a Cardiac Glycoside?
Digoxin
What are the drug names of some Antihypertensives / Diuretics?
Atenolol
Metoprolol tartrate
Nifedipine
Diltiazem hydrochloride
Verapami hydrochloride
Hydrochlorothiazide
Trimterene
What are the drug names of some Anticoagulants?
Warfarin(Coumadin)
Heparin
What are some common side efffects vasodilators?
dizziness, headaches, nausea, vomiting, facial flushing and increased pulse.
What is another name for a vasoconstrictor?
adrenergics
What are vasoconstrictors used to treat?
shock,acute hypotension, heart block( failure of electrical impulses to stimulate the heartbeat) and adverse reactions to medications.
What are some precautions with pts. on vasoconstrictors?
pts. must be assessed carefully to ensure they are not recieving too much medication & developing hypertension. B.P.to be checked regularly & often
What is the most common route to give a vasodilator?
sublingual
What are vasodilators used to treat?
angina pectoris
hypertension
What do diuretics do?
they help the body eliminate excess fluids through urinary excretion. this reduces the amount of blood that the heart has to pump.
What are diuretics used to treat?
CHF (cogestive heart failure)
given with a antihypertensive drug they help in the treatment for high B.P.
Potassium loss can be a side effect from diuretics. What can be done to counter this?
eat potassium rich foods
take potassium supplements combine a potassium losing diuretic with a potassium sparing diuretic
What are antihypertensives used to treat?
to lower blood pressure
What do antihypertensives do?
some work to relax the vessel walls
others interfere with the nerves that cause the vessel walls to become tense.
What are some of the side effect from antihypertensives?
head ache, dizziness, fainting, mental depression, inablitiy to achieve a erection
What may indicate the the does of antihypertensives is to high?
orthostatic hypotension- extreme low B.P. when the pt. stand up causing dizziness
Why do pts. need to be educated to take thier hypertensive meds?
There are no dramatic symptons of high B.P. yet many possible side effects from the drug so people may not want to take them. Hypertension can damage organs if left untreated
What are calcium channel blockers used to treat?
hypertension and angina
What are the common side effects from calcium channel blockers?
headache, dizziness, fatigue, edema of the extremidies, SOB
Before giving calcium channel blockers what is it important to do?
Take pts. B.P. & pulse
caution pts. to move slowly from lying to sitting because of hypotensive effect
What do antilipemics do and what are they for?
they are lipid lowering agents and are used to treat high cholesterol
what are cardiac glycosides used to treat and what are they produced from?
they are used to treat arrhythmias. they are products of the digitalis plant. thus referred to as digitalis therepy.
What is the protical when starting someone on digitalis therepy?
itis begun with a large dose to bring blood level to a certian point. this is called digitialization. then small doses are given to maintain the level of digoxin.
What must you do before giving someone Digoxin?
take their apical pulse for 1 minute, if pulse is below 60 don't give med.
pts. on digitalis must be wieghed daily
When a order for antiarrhythmics says "give 3 times a day" what must you do?
Call the Dr. or pharmacy for the correct timing. They should be given every 8 hrs. to ensure a constant blood level.
What are anticoagulants for and what do they do?
they prevent blood clotting. this helps prevent or reduce the formation of a thrombus.
When giving a anticoagulant subcutaneous what are the instructions?
Inject into fatty layer of the abdomen above the iliac crest at a 90 degree angle,DON'T ASPIRATE the syrine but inject slowly. apply pressure (don't rub) for 1 minute.
What are the precautiions used for pts. on anticoagulants?
They must have a regular blood clotting test (prothrombin time) to determine the proper dosage.
observe for blood in urine,stool,bleeding from skin, mucous membranes, which indicates overdosage.
What drugs can affect the action of warfarin(anticoagulant)?
OTC drugs such as aspirin, oral contraceptives and antacids
What are thrombolytics?
They are used to dissolve clots. Only used in the hospital setting.
Thrombolytics are effective for the treatment of myocardial infarction.....
if given within 6hrs. of the onset of chest pain.
What do hemostatics do and when are they useful?
they help for blood clots and are useful when much blood is lost due to injury or disease, or in the case of an O.D. of an anticoagulant.
What is vitiam K a necessary ingredient of?
in blood clotting, helps to stop internal bleeding. sometimes given before surgery or childbirth, also to reverse the effect of warfarin toxicity
When are hematinics / antianemics used?
they are used where ther is a lowered R.B.C. count or a lack of hemoglobin in conditions such as anemia
What do hematinucs do?
They provide the necessary ingredients for R.B.C. production, such as iron and cyacocobalamin(vitiam B 12)
What should pts. be warned about when taking iron?
They should expect thier stool to look dark & tarry
What is the color of arterial blood?
Bright red
What is the color of venous blood
dark red
What cells in blood aid in clotting?
Platelets
What is the major component of erythrocytes (R.B.C.)?
hemoglobin