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73 Cards in this Set

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circulatory path of blood
left ventricel, blood pumped to aorta - > smaller arteries -> branch to arterioles -> smaller capillaries -> cappilary blood collected into venules -> venules collect into larger veins - >into superior and inferior vena cava -> vena cava into right atrium (this 1st part is systolic) -> right atrium squeezed to right ventriclle -> pumonary arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries of lungs -> capillaries of lung collects in venules, then veins, and finally _> pulmonary veins -> leading to heartpulmonary veins empty into L atrium which fills left ventricle (this second half is called pulmonary circulation),
entire circulatory system
closed circulatory system because no escape from vessels
systole
ventricles contract,
diastole
relaxation of entire heart and then contraction of atria
how is blood propelled?
via hydrostatic pressure created by the contraction of the heart
rate of contraction controlled by?
autonomic nervous system (but does not initaite contraction)m heart contracts by a group of specialized cardiac muscles calle dhte sinoatrial node
SA node location and function
right atrium, paces heart contraction, spreads contracion around cardiac muscle via electrical synapse made from gap junctions
Vagus nerve
is parasympathetic and slos the contraction rate of the SA node (which is faster than normal beats)
action potential of the SA node spreads to AV node (atrioventricular node)
but AV node is slower to cotnract, allowing time for atria to finish their contraction and squeeze contents into the ventricels before the ventricles begin to contract
Action potnetical moves down what conductive nerves?
bundle of His (after the AV node)
Action potentical branches out through the ventricular walls via conductive fibers called
the purkinje fibers
after purkinje fibers
action potential spread though gap junctions from 1 cardiac musle to the next;
purkinje fibers in ventricels allow
for more unified and stronger contractions
vagus nerve
parasympathetic , innervating the heard and the digestive system. the vagus nerve slows the rate of the heart contractions and increases digestive activity in the intestines
arteries
elastic, stretch as they fill with blood, recoil to make blood move more smoothly; wrapped in smooth moscle innervated by the sympathetic nervous system; epinephrine powerful vasoconstricotr
large arteries have less smooth muscle per volume than medium size arteries and
less affected by the sympathetic innervation
arterioles
very small, wrapped by smooth muscles, constriction and dilation used to regulate blood pressure and reroute blood
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels,1 cell thick (diamter roughly equal to single red blood cell so single file line), nutrient and gas exchange with any tissue (other than vascular) occus only across capillary walls and not arterioles or venules
4 methods for capillary wall crossing
pinocytosis, diffusion or transport, movement through pores in the cells called fenestrations, movemnt through space between cells
capillaries are found close to
all cells of the body
large arteries have less smooth muscle per volume than medium size arteries and
less affected by the sympathetic innervation
blood flows into capillary
hyrdostatic pressure is greater than osmotic pressure, net fluid flow is out of the capillary and into the interstitium; hydrostatic pressure drops from the arterioleend to the venule end (thought osmotic pressure remains relatively constant throughout capillary; osmotic pressure overcomes hydrostatic pressure near the venule end of a capillary and net fluid flow is into the capillary and out of the interstitium. Net result is a 10% loss of fluid to the interstitium
arterioles
very small, wrapped by smooth muscles, constriction and dilation used to regulate blood pressure and reroute blood
venules and veins
similar in strucutre to arterioles and arteries. veins contain a far greater volume of blood; veins, venules and venus sinuses hold about 64% of blood in a body at rest and acts as a reservoid for blood
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels,1 cell thick (diamter roughly equal to single red blood cell so single file line), nutrient and gas exchange with any tissue (other than vascular) occus only across capillary walls and not arterioles or venules
total cross sectional area of capillaries
is larger than vein or artery, therefore slowest velocity
4 methods for capillary wall crossing
pinocytosis, diffusion or transport, movement through pores in the cells called fenestrations, movemnt through space between cells
large arteries have less smooth muscle per volume than medium size arteries and
less affected by the sympathetic innervation
arterioles
very small, wrapped by smooth muscles, constriction and dilation used to regulate blood pressure and reroute blood
capillaries are found close to
all cells of the body
to compensate for lower pressure, veins have...
have a valve system that prevents back flow of blood
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels,1 cell thick (diamter roughly equal to single red blood cell so single file line), nutrient and gas exchange with any tissue (other than vascular) occus only across capillary walls and not arterioles or venules
blood flows into capillary
hyrdostatic pressure is greater than osmotic pressure, net fluid flow is out of the capillary and into the interstitium; hydrostatic pressure drops from the arterioleend to the venule end (thought osmotic pressure remains relatively constant throughout capillary; osmotic pressure overcomes hydrostatic pressure near the venule end of a capillary and net fluid flow is into the capillary and out of the interstitium. Net result is a 10% loss of fluid to the interstitium
contraction of skeletal muscle
helps moveme blood
4 methods for capillary wall crossing
pinocytosis, diffusion or transport, movement through pores in the cells called fenestrations, movemnt through space between cells
venules and veins
similar in strucutre to arterioles and arteries. veins contain a far greater volume of blood; veins, venules and venus sinuses hold about 64% of blood in a body at rest and acts as a reservoid for blood
artery carrie blood ___
Artery Away from heart
capillaries are found close to
all cells of the body
total cross sectional area of capillaries
is larger than vein or artery, therefore slowest velocity
vein carries blood ___
toward heart (veIN)
blood flows into capillary
hyrdostatic pressure is greater than osmotic pressure, net fluid flow is out of the capillary and into the interstitium; hydrostatic pressure drops from the arterioleend to the venule end (thought osmotic pressure remains relatively constant throughout capillary; osmotic pressure overcomes hydrostatic pressure near the venule end of a capillary and net fluid flow is into the capillary and out of the interstitium. Net result is a 10% loss of fluid to the interstitium
to compensate for lower pressure, veins have...
have a valve system that prevents back flow of blood
which arteries contain most deoxygenated blood in the body?
pulmonary arteries
venules and veins
similar in strucutre to arterioles and arteries. veins contain a far greater volume of blood; veins, venules and venus sinuses hold about 64% of blood in a body at rest and acts as a reservoid for blood
contraction of skeletal muscle
helps moveme blood
pressure: blood pressure increawses near the hear and decreases...
to its lowest in the capillaries
total cross sectional area of capillaries
is larger than vein or artery, therefore slowest velocity
to compensate for lower pressure, veins have...
have a valve system that prevents back flow of blood
artery carrie blood ___
Artery Away from heart
contraction of skeletal muscle
helps moveme blood
artery carrie blood ___
Artery Away from heart
vein carries blood ___
toward heart (veIN)
vein carries blood ___
toward heart (veIN)
which arteries contain most deoxygenated blood in the body?
pulmonary arteries
which arteries contain most deoxygenated blood in the body?
pulmonary arteries
pressure: blood pressure increawses near the hear and decreases...
to its lowest in the capillaries
pressure: blood pressure increawses near the hear and decreases...
to its lowest in the capillaries
large arteries have less smooth muscle per volume than medium size arteries and
less affected by the sympathetic innervation
arterioles
very small, wrapped by smooth muscles, constriction and dilation used to regulate blood pressure and reroute blood
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels,1 cell thick (diamter roughly equal to single red blood cell so single file line), nutrient and gas exchange with any tissue (other than vascular) occus only across capillary walls and not arterioles or venules
4 methods for capillary wall crossing
pinocytosis, diffusion or transport, movement through pores in the cells called fenestrations, movemnt through space between cells
capillaries are found close to
all cells of the body
blood flows into capillary
hyrdostatic pressure is greater than osmotic pressure, net fluid flow is out of the capillary and into the interstitium; hydrostatic pressure drops from the arterioleend to the venule end (thought osmotic pressure remains relatively constant throughout capillary; osmotic pressure overcomes hydrostatic pressure near the venule end of a capillary and net fluid flow is into the capillary and out of the interstitium. Net result is a 10% loss of fluid to the interstitium
venules and veins
similar in strucutre to arterioles and arteries. veins contain a far greater volume of blood; veins, venules and venus sinuses hold about 64% of blood in a body at rest and acts as a reservoid for blood
total cross sectional area of capillaries
is larger than vein or artery, therefore slowest velocity
to compensate for lower pressure, veins have...
have a valve system that prevents back flow of blood
contraction of skeletal muscle
helps moveme blood
artery carrie blood ___
Artery Away from heart
vein carries blood ___
toward heart (veIN)
which arteries contain most deoxygenated blood in the body?
pulmonary arteries
pressure: blood pressure increawses near the hear and decreases...
to its lowest in the capillaries
single artery is much bigger than capillairy, but there are so many more capillaries than arteries, thereofre total x-sectionarl area is much greater for capillary
velocity is greatest at artery, and slowest at capillary
blood flollows continutiy eqn
Q =AV